BIOLOGY TEST 3 SO FAR!

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carl linnaeus

who developed the classification of life, set up as a hierarchy?

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classification of life

  • developed by carl linnaeus

  • set up as a hierarchy

  • each group shares characteristics

  • the domains form the highest, most inclusive hierarchical level in the organization of life

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domains

form the highest, most inclusive hierarchical level in the organization of life

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classification of humans

eukarya, animalia, chordata, mammalia, primates, hominidae, homo, sapiens

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classification order

domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

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homo sapiens sapiens

humans are __________ ___________ __________

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genus; specific epithet

  • homo is the ________

  • sapiens is the ______________ ________________

  • the second sapiens indicates a subspecies

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linnaeus classification

based on characteristics

  • feathers

  • scales

  • hair

  • bones

  • exoskeletons

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keratin

structural component of hair, feathers, scales, horns (not antlers), claws, hooves

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bacteria and archaea

of the 3 domains of life, ___________ and ____________ are the most ancient, most diverse, and most abundant

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bacteria and archaea

  • single celled

  • microscopic

  • reproduce asexually only

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single; asexually

bacteria and archaea

  • _________ celled

  • microscopic

  • reproduce __________ only

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prokaryotes

an informal label for bacteria and archaea only

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eukarya (or eukaryotes)

includes protists (such as amoeba), plants, animals, and fungi

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bacteria

e. coli (both good and bad), cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy, and bubonic plague

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good bacterial flora

bifidobacteria, escherichia coli, lactobacilli

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bifidobacteria

the various strains help to regulate levels of other bacteria in the gut, modulate immune responses to invading pathogens, prevent tumor formation and produce vitamins

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escherichia coli

several types inhabit the human gut. they are involved in the production of vitamin K2 (essential for blood clotting) and help to keep bad bacteria in check. but some strains can lead to illness

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lactobacilli

beneficial varieties produce vitamins and nutrients, boost immunity and protect against carcinogens

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archaea

  • most live in extreme condition

  • extremophiles: thermophiles and chemophiles (extreme pH, extreme alkalinity, bleach & detergent)

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archeans

examples of where _________ can be found:

  • mineral hot springs

  • abandoned copper mine

  • deep sea thermal vents

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eukarya

  • many are multicellular

  • animals, plants, fungus

  • eukaryotes

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kingdoms (in eukarya)

  • protista

  • fungi

  • plantae

  • animalia

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protista

  • single celled eukaryotes

  • flagella, ciliates, amoebas

  • algae (according to some)

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fungi

  • single and multicellular

  • fungus (mushrooms)

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plantae

  • algae (according to some)

  • plants

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animalia

  • animals

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many; single

protista contains ______ types of eukaryotic life, but all are _______ celled organisms

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fungi

  • many are decomposers

  • very little understood about them

  • some are the largest lifeforms known

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george washington carver

  • one of the first people to push crop rotation in agriculture (advocating peanuts)

  • collected over 120,000 fungus specimens

  • was able to distinguish different species of fungus that no one else has ever been able to distinguish

  • did NOT invent peanut butter

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decomposers

fungi: a world of _____________

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fungal

there are 3 main _________ groups organized by their unique reproductive structures

  • zygomycetes

  • basidiomycetes

  • ascomycetes

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decomposers

fungi that live off nonliving organic material

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parasites

fungi that live off other organisms, causing harm

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mutualists

fungi that live off other organisms, causing both organisms to benefit

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absorptive

fungi are adapted for _______________ heterotrophy

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multicellular

most fungi are ______________

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mycelium; hyphae

the body of a multicellular fungus is called the ______________ and is made up of many mycelial strands of _____________

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largest

some fungi are the _________ organisms in the world

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humongous fungus

the largest fungus studies measured 2,384 acres, which is 1665 football fields

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cordyceps fungus

zombie fungus

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42

animalia

insects, worms, humans, reptiles, amphibians, tardigrades, birds, sponges

  • multicellular

  • most: aerobic respiration (breathe oxygen, mitochondria); are mobile

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ingestive

animals are ___________ heterotrophs: they obtain energy and carbon by bringing food into the body and digesting and absorbing it internally

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consumers; decomposers

all animals are ____________ and some are ____________

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locomotion

animals exhibit ______________ (self-directed movement of the whole body) at some stage of the life cycle

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organs; organ system

  • enable animals to function more efficiently

  • has a definite shape, size, and location in the body

  • two or more working together form a __________ ___________

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plantae

  • have more complicated cells

  • chloroplasts

  • central vacuole

  • cell wall

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chloroplasts

produce energy

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alternation of generations

all plants alternate between 2 growth forms, one haploid and the other diploid

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bryophyta

mosses

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bryophyta (moss)

considered to be the most primitive group of plants

  • form matts of several individuals

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bryophytes

  • no vascular system or roots

  • small

  • require moist habitats

  • no seeds

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bryophytes

also include hornworts and liverworts

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pteridophyta

ferns

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pteridophytes

  • no vascular system, but has roots

  • require moist habitats

  • no seeds

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pteridophytes

also include lycopods and horsetails

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coniferophyta

conifers (have cones)

  • pine trees

  • cypress trees

  • cedars

  • furs

  • spruce

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coniferophyta

  • vascular system

  • cones w/seeds

  • no flowers

  • most are evergreens

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magnoliophyta

  • flowering plants

  • produce a seed with a protective coat

  • fruit

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magnoliaphyta

  • complete vascular system

  • flowers, fruits, seeds

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mimosa vine (sensitive briar)

native to arkansas

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porifera

sponges

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sponges (porifera)

filter feeders that feed on bacteria, amoebas, & other organisms they acquire from their environment

  • 3 main groups

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sponges (porifera)

the following are the 3 main groups of _________:

  • desmosponges

  • glass sponges

  • calcareous sponges

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nematoda

round worms

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nematoda

  • simple, very few organs

  • many are parasitic

  • can be microscopic or huge (up to 8.4 meters long)

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parasitic nematoda

  • hookworms

  • pin worms

  • crop parasites

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arthropoda

  • exoskeleton made of chitin

  • crabs

  • shrimp/prawn

  • insects

  • spiders

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mollusca

mussels, clams, snails

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mollusca

one of the most diverse phylum of animals and includes shellfish, snails, slugs, squid, and octopi

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foot; visceral mass; mantle

all mollusks share the following characteristics:

  • a muscular _______ at the base of the body

  • a compact grouping of internal organs called the _____________ ___________

  • a protective ___________ enclosing the body cavity and the visceral mass, which also secretes a shell in some species

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bivalves (or shellfish)

mollusks that shelter their soft bodies inside a hard, hinged shell

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gastropods

most have a spiral shell on the dorsal side of the animal

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cephalopods

marine animals that include the nautilus, squid, and cuttlefish, and are thought to be the most intelligent invertebrates

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phylliroe

  • parasitic sea slug

  • lives in the open ocean

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echinodermata

starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers

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annelida

segmented worms (i.e. earthworms)

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annelids

worms with segmented bodies

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annelids

have a simple brain connected to a pair of nerve cords

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earthworms

the most familiar annelid and are important decomposers

  • have a well developed digestive system, but lack a respiratory system

  • gas exchange takes place across the moist skin

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platyhelminthes

flatworms

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cnidaria

jellyfish, anemones, hydra

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cnidarians

include corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish

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cniardians

characteristics of ___________:

  • radial symmetry

  • two distinct tissue layers separated by a jellylike mesoglea

  • a nerve network

  • a lack of organs and organ systems

  • cnidocytes, or stinging cells, used to immobilize prey

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cnidocytes

stinging cells

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radial symmetry

cnidarians have ___________ ____________

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hydra

in freshwater, there are _________

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chordata

vertebrates, but some others

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chordates

possess a dorsal notochord at some stage of their life cycle

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chordates

have the following characteristics:

  • a dorsal rod of strengthening tissue called notochord

  • pharyngeal pouches, which develop on either side of the throat in the embryo

  • a postanal tail

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91

notochord

a collection of large cells that form a strong, flexible bar, which runs the length of the animal and provides support for the body

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ribbon worm

phylum nemertea

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velvet worm

phylum onychophora

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velvet worms

more similar to athropods than any other worm

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rotifera; tardigrade; bryozoa

  • _________: rotifers

  • __________: tardigrades aka water bears

  • __________: look like jelly

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tardigrades

  • tiny animals found nearly everywhere, love moss

  • can survive many years without water

  • can survive the vacuum of space

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tardigrades

water bears

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chelicerata

spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, and harvestmen

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limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)

used by pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers to test their products for the presence of endotoxins, bacterial substances that can cause fevers and even be fatal to humans

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myriapoda

millipedes (4 legs per segment) and centipedes (2 legs per segment)

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