BIOL 688 Exam 2 Terms to Know

studied byStudied by 23 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Signal transduction

1 / 115

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

116 Terms

1

Signal transduction

Process of transferring signals from extracellular environment to intracellular organelles

New cards
2

Receptor

Protein that binds a signal molecule and initiates a cellular response

New cards
3

Autocrine

Signal released by a cell and acts upon the same cell that released it

New cards
4

Paracrine

Signal that acts on nearby cells

New cards
5

Endocrine

Signal that acts on cells in another tissue at a distant site, usually through the bloodstream

New cards
6

Juxtacrine

Intercellular communication through physical contact

New cards
7

Mitogen

Extracellular substance that stimulates mitosis

New cards
8

Growth factor

Substance that stimulates growth and/or proliferation

New cards
9

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

New cards
10

Stanley Cohen

Scientist who discovered EGF and its role in epidermal growth

New cards
11

Rita Levi-Montalcini

Scientist who discovered NGF (Nerve Growth Factor)

New cards
12

TGF-a

Transforming Growth Factor alpha, binds to the same receptor as EGF

New cards
13

PDGF

Platelet Derived Growth Factor, stimulates cell proliferation and is contained in platelets

New cards
14

Sis

Oncogene from Simian Sarcoma Virus, transforms fibroblasts and increases PDGF expression

New cards
15

Plasma

Liquid left after removing cells from blood without clotting

New cards
16

Serum

Liquid remaining after blood clotting and removal of cells

New cards
17

Platelets

Blood cells involved in clotting

New cards
18

FGF

Fibroblast Growth Factor, stimulates fibroblast proliferation

New cards
19

Transmembrane domain

Protein domain that spans the cell membrane

New cards
20

Tyrosine kinase

Enzyme that attaches phosphate groups to proteins using ATP

New cards
21

Nusse and Varmus

Scientists who identified c-src and insertion points of cancers

New cards
22

MMTV

Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus, used to identify FGF3 as an insertion point of cancer

New cards
23

Dimerization

Process of two identical proteins coming together to form a functional assembly

New cards
24

Heterodimer

Protein composed of two different polypeptide chains

New cards
25

Homodimer

Protein composed of two identical polypeptide chains

New cards
26

Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)

Subclass of tyrosine kinases involved in cell-to-cell communication

New cards
27

EGFR/ErbB1/HER1

Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor, responds to TGF-alpha and EPR growth factors

New cards
28

v-ErbB (vs. c-EGF-R)

v-____is a viral oncogene that makes EGF-R constitutively active, c-___-_ has an extra ligand binding ectodomain

New cards
29

ErbB2/HER2/Neu

Gene family always in active conformation, discovered in rat neuroblastoma

New cards
30

ErbB3/HER3

Gene family that lacks Tyr Kinase Domain and responds to NRG1 and NRG2

New cards
31

ErbB4/HER4

Gene family that responds to NRG1-4 and EPR

New cards
32

Transphosphorylation

Transfer of a phosphate group from one kinase to another

New cards
33

Tony Hunter

Scientist who showed that Tyr can be phosphorylated

New cards
34

Non-receptor tyrosine kinase

Sub-group of tyrosine kinases that relay intracellular signals

New cards
35

SRC

Non-receptor tyrosine kinase

New cards
36

ABL

Gene that can stimulate cell proliferation or differentiation

New cards
37

SH1

Component of Src that adds phosphate to another protein

New cards
38

SH2

Component of Src that binds phospho-Tyr

New cards
39

SH3

Component of Src that binds proline rich regions

New cards
40

SH4

Component of Src that is membrane localized and does myristoylation

New cards
41

Myristoylation

Adding lipid to protein and attaching it to the plasma membrane

New cards
42

Integrin

Protein that interacts with extracellular matrix proteins

New cards
43

Attachment-dependent proliferation

Cells proliferate as long as they are attached to a surface and have a source of nutrition

New cards
44

v-Abl (vs. c-Abl)

v-___ has a fusion of tyrosine kinase with Gag, c-___ has a SH3 domain and no Gag

New cards
45

BCR-ABL

Fusion gene resulting from translocation of genes from chromosome 9 and chromosome 22

New cards
46

Gleevec

Drug that protects against ABL-tyrosine kinase

New cards
47

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

Cancer of the bone marrow caused by the BCR-ABL fusion gene

New cards
48

RAS

GTP-binding protein that causes Rat Sarcomas

New cards
49

GTPase

Protein that binds and hydrolyzes GTP

New cards
50

GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor)

Protein that removes GDP to allow GTP to enter

New cards
51

GAP (GTPase activating protein)

Protein that does GTP hydrolysis and RAS inactivation

New cards
52

Son of sevenless (SOS)

Protein that removes GDP so Ras can be activated

New cards
53

Grb2

Adaptive protein that contains SH2 and SH3 domains

New cards
54

Shc

Adaptive protein that binds to Grb2

New cards
55

RAF/MAPKKK

Protein attracted after EGF binding in signaling pathway

New cards
56

MEK/MAPKK

Protein attracted after EGF binding in signaling pathway

New cards
57

ERK/MAPK

Protein attracted after EGF binding in signaling pathway

New cards
58

MYC

Transcription factor that can result in Burkitt's lymphoma and other malignancies

New cards
59

Tyrosine vs. Serine/Threonine phosphorylation

Serine/Threonine phosphorylation is more stable than tyrosine phosphorylation

New cards
60

FAK (Focal adhesion kinase)

Tyrosine kinase present in the integrin binding pathway

New cards
61

Notch

Receptor involved in cell proliferation and development

New cards
62

Delta

Ligand that activates the Notch signaling pathway

New cards
63

TGF-b

Ligand that can stop the growth of many cell types

New cards
64

TGF-b type II vs. type I receptor

Type II receptor binds the TGF-beta ligand and keeps an already active ser/thr kinase before the ligand binds

New cards
65

Smad

Proteins that inhibit cell growth when activated by TGF-b signaling

New cards
66

PP2A

Protein phosphatase 2A, implicated in cell growth and signaling

New cards
67

Tumor suppressor

Counterbalance for oncogene, regulates cell growth and prevents tumor formation

New cards
68

Retinoblastoma/ RB

Tumor suppressor gene that controls cell cycle entry

New cards
69

Bilateral

Retinoblastoma occurs in both eyes or multiple times in one eye

New cards
70

Unilateral

Retinoblastoma occurs in one eye and diagnosed at a later age

New cards
71

Alfred Knudson

Scientist who developed the 'two hit' model for retinoblastoma

New cards
72

'Two hit model' for inactivation of a tumor suppressor

If both alleles of a tumor suppressor gene become mutated, tumor formation can occur

New cards
73

Ray White/Web Cavenee

Researchers who showed loss of function of Rb resulted in retinoblastoma

New cards
74

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH)

Loss of one parent's contribution to the cell

New cards
75

Gene conversion

Process of DNA polymerase copying a segment from one homologous chromosome to another

New cards
76

Mitotic recombination

Recombination of homologous chromosomes during G2 or M phase

New cards
77

Mitotic nondisjunction

Inappropriate chromosome separation during mitosis

New cards
78

Pedigree

Family tree listing affected and non-affected individuals for a particular trait/disease

New cards
79

Neurofibromatosis (NF)

Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors caused by mutations in the NF1 gene

New cards
80

Francis Collins

Researcher who discovered NF-1

New cards
81

Ray White

Researcher who worked with Francis Collins to discover NF-1

New cards
82

APC

Gene and protein product that can result in colon polyps if mutated

New cards
83

Wingless/Int-1 = Wnt

Gene involved in wing development in flies, mutated version called Wingless

New cards
84

White/Vogelstein/Nakamura

Researchers who identified the APC gene

New cards
85

b-catenin

Protein that binds to APC and is targeted for destruction

New cards
86

Christiane Nusslein-Volhard and Eric Wieschaus

Researchers who discovered the Wg gene in flies

New cards
87

Roel Nusse and Harold Varmus

Researchers who discovered Wnt and identified cellular-src

New cards
88

Ubiquitination

Posttranslational modification that marks proteins for degradation

New cards
89

Ubiquitin ligase (E1, E2, E3)

Ligase complex that attaches ubiquitin to proteins

New cards
90

Proteasome

Enzyme that breaks down targeted proteins into peptides

New cards
91

Axin

Protein that binds to APC and attracts beta-catenin

New cards
92

Gsk-3b

Protein that is attracted to Axin and APC binding, resulting in beta-catenin attraction

New cards
93

Frizzled (Fz)

Gene receptor for Wnt

New cards
94

Dishevelled

Gene that is activated or deactivated by Frizzled depending on Wnt signal

New cards
95

LEF-1

Transcription factor for cell proliferation

New cards
96

MYC/MAX

Activating promoters of proliferation

New cards
97

MYC/MIZ

Blocking inhibitors of proliferation

New cards
98

Cell cycle phases

G0, G1, S, G2, M

New cards
99

Cell cycle checkpoints

G1, S, G2, M checkpoints that regulate cell cycle progression

New cards
100

Tim Hunt

Scientist who discovered cyclin

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 34 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 67 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 181259 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(731)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard101 terms
studied byStudied by 239 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard111 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard57 terms
studied byStudied by 91 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)