Ethics chapter 9

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_____ is any disease that is caused by a pathogen

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1

_____ is any disease that is caused by a pathogen

Infectious disease

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2

Examples of pathogens

bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites

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3

____ it is when an infectious disease spreads quickly to more people than experts would have expected

Epidemic

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4

_____ is a disease outbreak that spreads across countries or continents

Pandemic

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5

What is the difference between a pandemic and epidemic ?

A pandemic takes more lives a pandemic effects more people

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6

______ infection is an infection that appears in a patient under medical care in the hospital or other health care facilities

Nonocimial / health care associated infection

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7

للمعلومه

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8

(HCAI ) = health care associated infection

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9

True or false : HCAI is always present in the time of admission to the hospital

False , sometimes the infection is absent in the admission

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10

True or false : HCAI infection can occur during health care delivery for other disease

True

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11

True or false : HCAI can occur even after the patient has been discharged

True

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12

True or false : HCAI can comprise occupational infection among the medical staff

True

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13

_____ A tiny single celled organism that gets nutrients from their environment ( the environment can be humans , animals .... )

Bacteria

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14

True or false : some bacteria are good for our bodies and some bacteria are used to make medicine and vaccines

True

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15

Bacteria is categorized according to shape to four categories:

1- spherical ( cocci ) 2- rod ( bacilli) 3- spiral ( spirilla ) 4- comma ( vibrios )

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16

True or false : bacteria only exist in chains

False , they can exist as single cells Or pairs or chains or clusters

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17

______ is a method of differentiating bacterial species into two large groups ( gram positive / gram negative )

Gram stain

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18

Gram positive bacteria ___ the stain

Retain

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19

Gram negative bacteria ___ the strain

Losses

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20

True or false : viruses are larger then bacteria

False bacteria is larger

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21

______ organisms that aren't even a full cell but simply a genetic material that is inside of a protein coating

Viruses

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22

True or false : viruses can live independently

False they use another cell's structure to reproduce , so they cannot survive unless they are living inside of something else

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23

True or false : viruses always causes very serious diseases like smallpox or HIV

False , sometimes they cause minor sickness like colds and flu

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24

______ organisms that can be divided into yeasts and molds based on their appearance

Fungi

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25

True or false : fungi are typically larger than bacteria

True

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26

Fungi ____ are single celled , microscopic and forms a smooth creamy colonies in culture

Yeasts

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27

Fungi ____ Consists of long crashing filaments of cells called " hyphae "

Molds

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28

True or false : A tangled mass of "hyphea " that is visible to the naked eye is called mycelium

True

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29

True or false : mycelium can come in the color black only

False various colors

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30

________ One celled organisms that contain nucleus and other cells structures making them more like plants and animal cells

Protozoa

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31

True or false : Protozoa is similar to bacteria but they are bigger

True

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32

ــــــorganisms that have rod or spherical shapes , they stain as gram negative and do not move independently

Rickettsia

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33

True or false : rickettsia move independently

False

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34

True or false : rickettsial is smaller then bacteria

True

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35

There are two types of infection

Systemic localized

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36

___Infection is an infection that is affecting the entire body , while an_ infection is an infection that is limited to a specific part of the body

Systemic localized

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37

A wound infection is an example of an ____ infection , while a cold is an example of a ___ infection

Localized systematic

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38

True or false : communicable disease = infectious disease

True

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39

True or false : communicable disease can only be caused by a specific infectious biological agent

False , it also can be caused by the toxic products of that agent

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40

True or false :communicable diseases can only spread from one human to another

False it can be spread through one human to another or through an animal to human or to an animal to another animal or it can be spread through the environment

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41

______ very small living plants or animals

Micro organisms

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42

True or false : all microorganisms are harmful

False

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43

_____ are microorganisms that are found in the human body

Normal flora

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44

Normal flora can be found in many areas of the body like :

Skin vagina intestine

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45

True or false : rickettsial and Protozoa are chemical compounds

False , they are microorganisms

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46

Ways that pathogens are spread

From one person to another (direct contact) through water or food Through insects through Aerosolization

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47

Aresolaztion = الهباء الجوي

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48

_____ is the process leading to patients acquiring infection within a healthcare setting

Cycle of infection / chain of infection

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49

True or false : the process of chain of infection can occur when one or more of the links is intact

False , it only occurs when all the links are intact

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50

How many links are in a cycle of infection ?

6 links

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51

What are the six links in the chain of infection?

  1. pathogen

  2. reservoir

  3. portal of exit

  4. means of transmission

  5. portal of entry

  6. new host

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52

How to stop the spread of an infection?

By breaking the chain

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53

True or false : the pathogen is the disease causing organisms

True

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54

True or false : the pathogen is the second link of the chain

False, it is the first

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55

How to break the first link ( the infectious agent ) ?

1 - pasteurize milk 2- chlorinate drinking water 3- use disinfectant

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56

True or false : colds , measles and polio are examples diseases caused by bacteria

False, they are examples diseases caused by viruses

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57

Tetanus is caused by

bacteria

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58

Food poisoning is caused by

bacteria

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59

Athletes foot is caused by

Fungi

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60

TB is caused by

bacteria

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61

Moniliasis is caused by:

Fungi

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62

____ is the starting point for the occurrence of the communicable Disease

Reservoir / source

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63

True or false : the reservoir can be a human , an animal , arthropod , plant or soil

True

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64

True or false : the reservoir can be an inanimate matter

True

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65

True or false : the infectious agent uses the reservoir to live , duplicate and survive

True

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66

True or false : the pathogen use the reservoirs as a secondary source for survivor

False , it depends on it primarily

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67

Malaria is an example of a disease caused by

protozoa

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68

Tape worm is an example of?

Parasite

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69

Trichinosis is caused by

parasite

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70

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71

عشان تربطون : هذا مرض سببه دوده بس ما ذكروا لنا وش اسمها اوكي ؟

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72

واحنا قلنا ان دوده tape worm تعبتر parasite

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73

كلهم ديدان وكلهم يصنفون parasite

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74

Anaerobic is an example of a __

Protozoa

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75

Q fever is caused by

Rickettsia

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76

The difference between animate and Inanimate reservoirs

1 - people , insects , birds and animals 2- soil , water , food , feces , fluids ... يعني حي وغير حي

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77

True or false : the reservoir and the source are the same thing

False , not always

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78

True or false : you can tell who is the carrier of the disease

False, not always , the carrier can appear perfectly healthy

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79

The link that is needed for the pathogen to leave the reservoir is the __

Portal of exit

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80

If the reservoir is human the portal of exit can be many things like :

1- saliva 2- mucous 3 - feces 4 - blood 5 - nose or through discharge

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81

The ________ trac is one of the portals of exit in the human body , that the agent can exit through coughing , sneezing and sputum

Respiratory

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82

True or false : the genitourinary tract can be a portal of exit to a pathogen

True

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83

True or false : influenza and tuberculosis are diseases that exits through the skin

False , it exits through the respiratory tract

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84

Pathogens that cause sexually transmitted disease exit the body through the ___ tract

Genitourinary

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85

Examples of STI (sexually transmitted infection)

Gonorrhea syphilis AIDS

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86

The ___ tract is a portal of exit in the human body where the pathogens exits through the saliva or feces

Gastro intestinal tract

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87

Examples of disease that is transmitted through the saliva

Rabies

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88

true or false : an example of a Disease that are transmitted through the feces is typhoid

True

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89

True or false : an example of a disease that is transmitted through feces is infective hepatitis

True

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90

True or false : the pathogen that causes hepatitis B leaves the body through the gastro intestinal tract

False, through the skin

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91

فرقوا : Hepatitis b = through the skin infective hepatitis = through feces

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92

True or false : the fungi that causes fungal infection leaves the body through the skin

True

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93

True or false : a mother can pass on a disease to the infant through the umbilical cord

True

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94

True or false : Examples of disease that a mother can pass on to an infant are AIDS and syphilis

True

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95

conjunctivitis is a disease that can be transmitted through the ___ discharge

Eye's

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96

Otitis media is a disease that is transmitted through the___ discharge

Ear's

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97

HIV is disease that is transmitted through the ___ discharge

Genital

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98

Gonorrhea is a disease that is transmitted through the ___ discharge

Genital

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99

Syphilis is a disease that is transmitted through the __ discharge

Genital

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100

Bovine Tuberculosis is a disease that can be transmitted through ___

Breast milk

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