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209 Terms

1

psychology

scientific study of behavior and mental processes

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Wilheim Wundt (father of psychology)

objective introspection

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objective introspection

objectively examining and measuring internal thoughts, experiences, and emotions

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Edward Titchener (student of Wundt)

structuralism

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structuralism

study consciousness by trying to understand its smallest, most basic elements

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William James (Harvard professor)

functionalism

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functionalism

influenced by Charles Darwin - study the function of consciousness, how the mind allows people to work, play, adapt to new circumstances

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Max Wertheimer

Gestalt psychology

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Gestalt psychology

how we experience the world (perceive and sense) the sum is greater than the parts

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Sigmund Freud

unconscious and psychoanalysis

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unconscious

part of our mind outside of our awareness that a we push down, our dark urges and desires

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psychoanalysis

therapy based on Freud’s idea, focus on early childhood development, cured when unconscious desires/ conflicts are understood

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psychodynamic

modern version of psychoanalysis, focuses on the development on a sense of self/ discovery of unknown motivations behind a person’s behavior

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14

attachment theory

type of bond formed between a caregiver and an infant

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15

behavioral perspective

heavily influenced by work done by BF Skinner, leading psychological perspective

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operant conditioning

how to manipulate voluntary behavior by changing the consequences of behavior

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conditioning

created by Ivan Pavlov, a conditioned or learned reflexive response

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Humanistic perspective - carl Rodgers (self-actualize)

emphasis on conscious and immediate experiences and the empowerment of the individual to become the best he/she can be

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Humanistic perspective - Abraham Maslow (free will)

humanists held the view that people have the freedom to choose/shape their own destiny, client centered therapy

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Cognitive perspective

grew in part out of the gestalt psychology, how people think, remember, and store information

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cognitive neuroscience

brain and cognitive processing

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22

sociocultural perspective

combines social and cultural psychology

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23

social phsycology

study of groups, relationships, social influences on behavior

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cultural psychology

study of cultural values and norms, or standards of behavior

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25

biopsychological perspective

mental processes can be explained by the interaction with biological factors like genes or hormones

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behavioral genetics

the relationship between certain genes and mental processes and behaviors

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evolutionary perspective

grew in part out of functionalism, argues that human behavior is a result of psychological adaptions that help people successfully function and survive

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28

theory

a well developed set of ideas that propose an explanation for observed phenomena. they are supported by a range of scientific data

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29

hypothesis

a testable prediction about how the world will behave

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30

naturalistic observation

watching behavior in real world settings, high degree of external validity, low degree of internal validity

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external validity

extent to which we can generalize our findings to the real world

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internal validity

extent to which we can draw cause and effect inferences

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33

case study designs

studying on person or a small number of people for an extended period of time, common with rare types of brain damage or mental illness, helpful in providing existence proofs, but can be misleading and anecdotal

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34

self report measures

asses characteristics such s personality or mental illness

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35

surveys

ask about a person’s opinions or abilities, not all measures an surveys are equal

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pros of self report measures and surveys

easy to administer, direct (self) assessment of person’s state, can inquire about topics that are not easily observable

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cons of self report measures and surveys

accuracy is skewed for certain groups, potential for dishonesty, response sets-tendencies of research subjects to distort their responses, positive impression management, malingering , lack of insight by participants

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correlations designs

examine how two variables are related, may use surveys, observations, archival data, can vary from +1 to -1, depicted in a scatterplot

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illusory correlation

perception of statistical association where none exists, just because two things are related does not mean that one causes another

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40

experimental design

the only way to determine if one thing is casually related to another, you purposefully manipulate variable, rather than just measure already existing differences

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experimental group

receives the manipulation

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control group

does not receive the manipulation

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43

independent variable

what the experimenter manipulates

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dependent variable

what the experimenter measure to see whether manipulation had an effect

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confounds

any difference between the experimental and control groups aside form the independent variable

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placebo effect

improvement resulting form the mere expectation of improvement

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mean

average of all scores

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48

median

middle score in the data set

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mode

most frequent score in the data set

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range

difference between the highest and lowest scores

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standard deviation

measure that takes into account how far each data point is from the mean

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types of correlations

a causes b, b causes a, c causes both a and b

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53

dendrites

receive messages from other neurons

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nucleus

contains genetic material(DNA)

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soma

the cell body of the neuron responsible form painting the life of the cell

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axon

carries the neural message from the cell body to the axon terminals for communication with other cells

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myelin sheath

fatty substances that coat axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse

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axon terminals

ends of axonal branches of the neuron, specialized for communication between cells

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resting potential

the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse

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action potential

the release of the neural impulse, consisting of a several of the electrical charge within the axon

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synapse

microscopic fluid filled space between the axon terminal of one cell and the dendrites or soma of the next cell

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neurotransmitters

chemicals found in the synaptic vesicles that, when released, has an effect on the next cell

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reuptake

process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles

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acetylcholine

Important for learning, memory, muscle movement

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serotonin

influences mood and regulates food intake

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dopamine

important to movement and to frontal lobe activity

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somatic nervous system

nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body, allows you to move your body

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autonomic nervous system

nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands

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sympathetic

responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal

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parasympathetic

restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day to day functioning of the organs and glands

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central nervous system

Brian and spinal cord

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72

cortex

“newest” part of the brain located the forebrain

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frontal lobe

reasoning, decision making, fluent speech, personality, motor cortex

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parietal lobe

touch, taste, temperature, somatosensory cortex

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temporal lobe

hearing , meaningful speech

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occipital lobe

vision

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limbic system

between the “older” parts of the Brian and the cerebral hemisphere, processes emotion and memory

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amygdala

emotions

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thalamus

relay station between lower part of the brain and the cortex

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80

hypothalamus

motivation behaviors, sleep, hunger, thirst, sex

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cingulate cortex

emotions and cognition

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hippocampus

memory

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medulla

regulates heart rate and breathing

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pons

links ot cerebellum, affects arousal, dreaming

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cerebellum

balance, coordination, movement

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broca’s aphasia

speaking impairment, difficulty getting words out, aware they are having difficulty

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wernicke’s aphasia

understanding impairment, sentences don’t make sense, not aware they don’t make sense

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88

electroencephalogram (EEG)

brain waves are studied by placing electrodes on the scalp

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positron emission tomography (PET)

small amounts of radiation are injected into the blood and tracked

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magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Brian structures, uses giant magnet to align atoms in your Brian

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91

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Brian activity, measure blood oxygenation

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92

waking consciousness

state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized and the person feels alert

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altered state of consciousness

state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness

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94

adaptive theory

animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators, when we sleep

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95

restorative theory

sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage, why we sleep

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96

stages of sleep - awake

alpha and beta waves

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97

stages of sleep - 1

theta waves, hypnagogic imagery, myoclonic jerks (5-10 minutes/cycle)

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98

stages of sleep - 2

sleep spindles an k complexes, as much as 65 percent of total sleep (10-30 minutes/cycle)

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99

stages of sleep - 3

delta waves, crucial to feel rested suppressed by alcohol, 40 percent of sleep in children 25 perennial in adults, (15-30 minutes/cycle)

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100

stages of sleep - REM

Brian activity similar to wakefulness, becomes longer as the right goes on (10-20 minutes/cycle)

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