Unit 6 MT

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Lower respiratory tract (LRT)

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Lower respiratory tract (LRT)

bronchial tree and lungs referred as the airway

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Mucous membranes

Mucous membranes produce mucus

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Frontal sinuses

Located in frontal bone just above eyebrows causing pain in this area \n • Most likely to get infected

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Maxillary sinuses

Located in maxillary bones under the eyes \n • The second most likely to get infected,causes pain in teeth \n • The largest of our paranasal sinuses

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Sphenoid sinuses

Located in sphenoid bone behind eye and under the pituitary gland \n • Near the optic nerves \n • Not likely infected, but infection may damage vision

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Ethmoid sinuses

Located in ethmoid bone between nose and eyes \n • Often become sore if you wear eyeglasses

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pharynx

the \n throat \n • Receives air and food from the nasal/oral \n cavities

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larynx

voice box (not the throat) \n • Located between pharynx and trachea

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epiglottis

swings downward and closes off the \n laryngopharynx \n • Prevents food from entering the trachea and lungs

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trachea

the windpipe

allows food to pass down the esophagus

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bronchi

two Primary Bronchi branch from the \n trachea to convey air into the two lungs

branch out into bronchioles

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alveoli

air sacs

This is the true site of gas exchange (oxygen/carbon \n dioxide) between our lungs & our blood

produce surfactant that reduces surface tension preventing collapse or rupture during exhalation

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right lung vs left lung

right lung has 3 lobes, left has 2

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mediastinum

Middle section of chest cavity \n • Located between the lungs \n • Contains \n – Heart and its veins/arteries, esophagus, \n trachea, bronchi, thymus gland, lymph nodes

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pleura

Moist membrane covering outer surface of lungs \n and lining inner surface of thoracic cavity

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diaphragm

Lies just underneath the lungs \n • Breathing occurs as diaphragm contracts \n and relaxes

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respiration

exchange of oxygen for carbon \n dioxide (1 inhalation + 1 exhalation = 1 respiration

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inhalation

Breathing in \n – Diaphragm contracts, and pulls downward; \n thoracic cavity expands causing vacuum drawing \n air into lungs

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exhalation

Breathing out \n – Diaphragm relaxes, and moves upward; thoracic \n cavity narrows forcing air out of lungs

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external respiration

Exchange of air & gases between our body & the \n atmosphere outside our body

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internal respiration

Exchange of gases (oxygen & carbon dioxide)

\n between our blood and all of our cells & tissues

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Otorhinolaryngologist or \n Otorhinopharyngologist

Specializes in diagnosing/treating diseases/disorders \n of head and neck, ears, nose & throat (ENT)

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Pulmonologist

Specializes in diagnosing/treating diseases/disorders \n of respiratory system

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Thoracic surgeon

Performs surgery on organs inside thorax, or chest \n including heart, lungs, and esophagus

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chronic bronchitis

Inflammation of airways due to recurrent \n exposure to inhaled irritant

excessive mucus production and \n thickening of walls of air passages

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emphysema

progressive loss of lung function

decrease in number of alveoli, \n enlargement of remaining alveoli, and destruction of \n their walls

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asthma

Chronic inflammatory disease of bronchial tubes \n • May be triggered by allergic reaction

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epistaxis

nosebleed

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rhinorrhea

runny nose

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Pharyngitis

sore throat

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aphonia

Loss of ability of larynx to produce normal speech \n sounds

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dysphonia

difficulty in speaking

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Laryngitis

Also often used to describe voice loss due to this \n inflammation

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atelectasis

collapsed lung

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Pleural effusion

Excess accumulation of fluid in pleural \n space \n – Effusion = escape of fluid from vessels \n into the tissues or a body cavity

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Pulmonary edema

Accumulation of fluid in lung tissues

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Pulmonary embolism

Blockage of pulmonary artery by foreign \n matter or an embolus

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Pneumonia

a serious inflammation of the lungs \n where the alveoli & air passages fill with pus and/or \n other fluids

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Aspiration pneumonia

inhaling foreign substance into lungs

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Bacterial pneumonia

Commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Community-acquired pneumonia

contagious infection outside \n hospital/clinic

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Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Acquired during a stay in hospital

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Mycoplasma pneumonia

Milder, longer lasting form

walking pneumonia

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Pneumocystis pneumonia

Opportunistic infection caused by a yeast

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Viral pneumoniac

caused by viruses

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pulmonary fibrosis

Progressive formation of scar tissue in the lung \n causing decreased lung capacity and difficulty in \n breathing

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pneumoconiosis

Fibrosis of lung tissue due to dust inhalation

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asbestosis

Result of inhalation of asbestos particles

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silicosis

Result of inhalation of silica dust

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lung cancer

Leading cause of cancer death in the United \n States (not the leading cause of cancer

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apnea

Temporary absence of spontaneous respiration

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sleep apnea

Potentially serious \n – Breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep multiple \n times & may cause decrease in blood oxygen levels

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hyperpnea

Deeper, longer and more rapid than normal breathing, commonly \n associated with physical exertion

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hypopnea

Shallow or slow respiration \n – Often leads to apnea

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anoxia

Absence of oxygen from body tissues/organs even though \n the flow of blood is adequate

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asphyxia

Lack of oxygen leading to loss of consciousness

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hypoxia

Deficient oxygen levels in body tissues/organs

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hypoxemia

Decreased oxygen levels in the blood

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Bronchoscopy

Visual examination of bronchi using bronchoscope \n – Flexible scope goes through the nose or mouth

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chest x-ray

assists with diagnosing lung disorders

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Laryngoscopy

Visual examination of larynx and vocal cords \n – Scope goes through mouth

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Polysomnography

sleep study

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peak flow meter

Measures air flow out of the lungs \n – Usually for patients suffering form asthma

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spirometer

Measures volume of air inhaled/exhaled and length of time \n required for each breath

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Pulmonary function tests

various measurements from a spirometer

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pulse oximeter

External monitor placed on fingertip or ear lobe to measure \n oxygen saturation level in the blood

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phlegm

thick muscus ejected through mouth

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sputum

phlegm used for diagnostic purposes

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antitussive

cough medicine

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bronchodilator

Inhaled medication that relaxes/expands bronchial

\n passages

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Metered-dose inhaler

Administers bronchodilator medication in aerosol form

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nebulizer

Allows for inhalation of a medicated bronchodilator mist via \n face mask or mouthpiece

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wedge resection

Surgical removal of wedge-shaped piece of \n cancerous lung

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lobectomy

Surgical removal of a lobe of an organ \n – In this case, surgical removal of an entire lobe of \n a lung

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Diaphragmatic breathing

Relaxation technique

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CPAP machine

Noninvasive ventilation device used to treat sleep apnea \n – Forces air into nasal cavity, holding airway open

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BiPAP machine

Similar to CPAP, but can be set at higher pressures for inhaling and

lower pressure for exhaling

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ambu bag

air is squeezed by \n hand into a face mask

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ventilator

Mechanical device for artificial respiration

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Supplemental Oxygen Therapy

Used when a patient cannot maintain an adequate oxygen saturation level in their blood from normal breathing

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Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

Special chamber for delivering pure oxygen \n – Lungs and bloodstream absorb more oxygen resulting in promotion \n of healing and assistance with fighting infection

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pica

is an abnormal craving or appetite for nonfood substances that lasts for at least one month

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upper GI tract

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach

Transports food from entry until digestion begins in the \n stomach

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lower GI tract

he bowels) \n – Small and large intestines, rectum, anus

Digestion is completed & waste is excreted

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hard palate

anterior portion of the palate

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soft palate

Flexible posterior portion of the palate

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soft palate & uvula during the process of swallowing

Soft palate & Uvula move up and backward to \n close off the nasal cavity, preventing upward \n movement of food/liquid from entering the \n nose

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pharynx

Common passageway for respiration AND digestion

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epiglottis

closes entrance to trachea to prevent food and liquid \n from moving from pharynx during swallowing

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Lower esophageal sphincter

Also known as the Cardiac Sphincter \n • Muscular ring between esophagus and \n stomach; relaxes to allow food to enter the \n stomach and contracts to prevent stomach \n contents from regurgitating into the esophagus

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stomach

Consists of fundus (upper, rounded part), body \n (main portion), and antrum (lower part)

Begins digestion, does not finish digestion, no \n absorption of nutrients occurs here

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rugae

Folds/wrinkles in mucosa lining allowing the \n stomach to increase and decrease in size

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Pyloric sphincter

Ring-like muscle at base of stomach controlling flow of \n partially digested food from stomach to the duodenum

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small intestine

This is where food is actually digested and where \n nutrients are actually absorbed

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3 sections of small intestine

Duodenum: first portion, connected to stomach \n – Jejunum: middle portion \n – Ileum: longest portion, connects to first portion \n (cecum) of Large Intestine

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large intestines

Extends from end of small intestine to the anus \n • Site of preparation of waste products of digestion for \n excretion

Cecum \n – Colon \n – Rectum \n – Anus

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cecum

A pouch that lies on the right side of the \n abdomen \n – Vermiform appendix \n • Hangs from the lower portion of the cecum

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4 parts of colon

Ascending colon \n • travels upward from the Cecum

\n – Transverse colon \n • travels across from left to right in the direction of the Spleen

\n – Descending colon \n • travels downwards towards next section

\n – Sigmoid colon \n • S-shaped curve that continues from the Descending Colon to connect to the Rectum

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liver

removing toxins from blood and turning food into fuel/nutrients

-Secretes bile that aids in fat digestion

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gall bladder

Stores and concentrates bile for later use

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