Vulnerable Populations Final

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what is chronological age


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108 Terms

what is chronological age

how old a person is in years

what is functional age

what is the person capable of doing (ex: engagement in ADLs)

which is a better indicator of how someone is doing with their aging: chronological or functional


what is the leading cause and most reversible visual impairment in older adults


what is a cataract

clouding of the lens

what are the risk factors for cataracts

increasing age, diabetes, smoking, HTN, corticosteroids

what is the treatment for cataracts

surgical removal of the clouded lens and replacement with an implant

what is one of the leading causes of blindness in america


what is a glaucoma

damage to the optic nerve caused by high pressure in the eye

what is the most common form of glaucoma

primary open-angle glaucoma

what is a primary open angle glaucoma

aqueous humor drains slowly, develops gradually with no symptoms until late-stage

what assessment tools are used for alzheimers

mini-cog, mini-mental state exam, clock drawing test

what is respite care

provides short term reliefs for cargivers

what increased the risk for falls in the elderly

aging, chronic illness, medications

what are potential complications from falls

broken hips, TBI

what factors can influence driver safety in the elderly

impaired senses, medications

what are the 3 types of advanced directives

living will, DNR, durable power of attorney

what is a living will

legal document that allows individuals to specify what kind fo medical treatment they would or would not want if they become incapacitated or had a irreversible terminal illness

what is a DNR order

order stating the individual does not want CPR of they were to stop breathing or have no heartbeat

what is a durable power of attorney

designation of healthcare proxy to make medical decisions should the individual become incapacitated

what is included in the chain of transmission

infectious agent, reservoir, portals of entry/exit, mode of transmission, host susceptibility

what is a reservoir

environment in which pathogen lives and multiples in

what are examples of direct transmission

getting coughed on, unprotected sex, needle sticks

what is indirect transmission

spread of infection through vehicle of transmission outside the host such as fomites or vectors

what is a fomite

inanimate objects that transport microbes

what are examples of fomites

water, doorknob, phone

what is a vector

insect or animal that transmit the microb

what are examples of diseases spread by vectors

zika, rocky mountain spotted fever, enchephalitis

how do we break the chain of transmission

removing a link will prevent infection (controlling agent, removing reservoir, controlling portals)

what is the latent stage of infection

infectious agent has invaded the host and begun replicating (no shedding)

what is the communicable stage of infection

shedding of the agent

what is the incubation stage of infection

time from invasion to when disease symptoms first appear

what is incidence

number of new cases

what is endemic

occurs at consistent and expected level in a geographical area

what is an outbreak

unexpected occurrence of an infectious disease in a geographic area over a limited period

what is an epidemic

large outbreak for an extended period of time


global spread

what is herd immunity

80% of population is vaccinated or immune

how could we control the human reservoir to break the chain on transmission

quarantine individuals during incubation period

how can we control portals of entry and exit to break the chain of transmission

isolate sick people, universal precautions

what is an immunization

process in which active or passive immunity to an infectious agent is induced or amplified

what is a vaccination

administration of vaccine or toxoid to confer active immunity

what is primary vaccine failure

improper storage of vaccines, production error (vaccine ineffective before reaching patient)

what is secondary vaccine failure

body lacks immune response after receiving the vaccine

what is natural immunity

innate resistance to antigen or toxin (born with it)

what is acquired immunity

derived from actual exposure to specific infectious agent or vaccine

what is active immunity

body produces its own antibodies to an antigen from either infection or vaccine

what is passive immunity

temporary resistance that has been donated to the host either through transfusions or placental from mother to baby that lasts as long as the substance remains in the bloodstream

what are intentional injuries most commonly resulting from in rural communities