Vulnerable Populations Final

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what is chronological age

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what is chronological age

how old a person is in years

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what is functional age

what is the person capable of doing (ex: engagement in ADLs)

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which is a better indicator of how someone is doing with their aging: chronological or functional


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what is the leading cause and most reversible visual impairment in older adults


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what is a cataract

clouding of the lens

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what are the risk factors for cataracts

increasing age, diabetes, smoking, HTN, corticosteroids

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what is the treatment for cataracts

surgical removal of the clouded lens and replacement with an implant

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what is one of the leading causes of blindness in america


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what is a glaucoma

damage to the optic nerve caused by high pressure in the eye

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what is the most common form of glaucoma

primary open-angle glaucoma

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what is a primary open angle glaucoma

aqueous humor drains slowly, develops gradually with no symptoms until late-stage

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what assessment tools are used for alzheimers

mini-cog, mini-mental state exam, clock drawing test

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what is respite care

provides short term reliefs for cargivers

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what increased the risk for falls in the elderly

aging, chronic illness, medications

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what are potential complications from falls

broken hips, TBI

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what factors can influence driver safety in the elderly

impaired senses, medications

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what are the 3 types of advanced directives

living will, DNR, durable power of attorney

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what is a living will

legal document that allows individuals to specify what kind fo medical treatment they would or would not want if they become incapacitated or had a irreversible terminal illness

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what is a DNR order

order stating the individual does not want CPR of they were to stop breathing or have no heartbeat

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what is a durable power of attorney

designation of healthcare proxy to make medical decisions should the individual become incapacitated

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what is included in the chain of transmission

infectious agent, reservoir, portals of entry/exit, mode of transmission, host susceptibility

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what is a reservoir

environment in which pathogen lives and multiples in

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what are examples of direct transmission

getting coughed on, unprotected sex, needle sticks

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what is indirect transmission

spread of infection through vehicle of transmission outside the host such as fomites or vectors

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what is a fomite

inanimate objects that transport microbes

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what are examples of fomites

water, doorknob, phone

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what is a vector

insect or animal that transmit the microb

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what are examples of diseases spread by vectors

zika, rocky mountain spotted fever, enchephalitis

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how do we break the chain of transmission

removing a link will prevent infection (controlling agent, removing reservoir, controlling portals)

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what is the latent stage of infection

infectious agent has invaded the host and begun replicating (no shedding)

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what is the communicable stage of infection

shedding of the agent

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what is the incubation stage of infection

time from invasion to when disease symptoms first appear

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what is incidence

number of new cases

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what is endemic

occurs at consistent and expected level in a geographical area

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what is an outbreak

unexpected occurrence of an infectious disease in a geographic area over a limited period

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what is an epidemic

large outbreak for an extended period of time

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global spread

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what is herd immunity

80% of population is vaccinated or immune

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how could we control the human reservoir to break the chain on transmission

quarantine individuals during incubation period

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how can we control portals of entry and exit to break the chain of transmission

isolate sick people, universal precautions

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what is an immunization

process in which active or passive immunity to an infectious agent is induced or amplified

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what is a vaccination

administration of vaccine or toxoid to confer active immunity

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what is primary vaccine failure

improper storage of vaccines, production error (vaccine ineffective before reaching patient)

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what is secondary vaccine failure

body lacks immune response after receiving the vaccine

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what is natural immunity

innate resistance to antigen or toxin (born with it)

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what is acquired immunity

derived from actual exposure to specific infectious agent or vaccine

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what is active immunity

body produces its own antibodies to an antigen from either infection or vaccine

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what is passive immunity

temporary resistance that has been donated to the host either through transfusions or placental from mother to baby that lasts as long as the substance remains in the bloodstream

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what are intentional injuries most commonly resulting from in rural communities


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what is the leading cause of death in America up until age 44

unintentional injury

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how does age influence vulnerability and health disparities in rural areas

elderly population is growing, they tend to have lower incomes and be isolated and lack access to care

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what is a migrant farm worker

those who migrate to find work

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what is a seasonal farm worker

reside permanently in one place and work locally when farm labor is needed

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which aggregate has the poorest health in the US

migrant and seasonal farmworkers

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what is a common health disparity among farmworkers

chronic respiratory illness

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what is a factor leading to health disparity of migrant workers related to access

not many HCP in the area, lack of insurance, fear of deportation, long work hours

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what are factors that attribute to homelessness

shortage of affordable housing, income insufficient to meet basic needs, inadequate support services

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HUD definition of homeless: category 1- literally homeless

individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence as well as those who resided in a shelter, are exiting an institution, or stayed somewhere not meant for human residence

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HUD definition of homeless: category 2- imminent risk of homelessness

individuals who will imminently lose their primary nighttime residence

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HUD definition of homelessness: category 3- homeless under other federal statutes

unaccompanied youth and families with children who are defined as homeless under other federal statues but don't otherwise qualify as homeless under this definition

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HUD definition of homelessness: category 4- fleeing/attempt to flee domestic violence

individuals fleeing from violence or threatening conditions

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what are federally qualified health centers

receive federal grants to fun services to underserved populations, may receive additional funds to provide primary care and substance abuse services to homeless populations

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is the homeless population on average younger or older than the general population


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is it more common for men or women to be homeless


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which race make up the largest proportion of the homeless population


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what is a disability

umbrella term covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions

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what are developmental disabilities

conditions manifested by limitation before the legal age of adulthood (18)

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what is impairment

problem in body function, activity limitation, or participation restriction

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what is activity limitation

difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action

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what is handicap

a disadvantage resulting from an impairment or disability that prevents fulfillment of an expected role

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what is the individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA)

ensures free and appropriate public education to children with a disability in the least restrictive setting

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what is a service provided under the individuals with disabilities education act

development of individualized education plan (IEP)

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what is the role of the school nurse in an IEP

identification and evaluation of students who may be eligible for services

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what is the americans with disabilities act (ADA)

prohibits discrimination against peoples with a disabilities and provides equal opportunities in relation to employment, transportation, public services, and telecommunications

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what is a qualified individual according to the ADA

person with a physical or mental impairment that limits life activities or body function

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what are the requirements of the ADA in regard to a qualified disabled individual applying for a job

must meet the legitimate skill, experience, education, or other requirements of the position; must be able to perform job functions with or without reasonable accommodations

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what is the ticket to work and work incentives improvement act

increased access to vocational services and provided methods for retaining health insurance, higher cap to accommodate earnings when progress is made in employment plans but before they reach the level of earning that would terminate benefits

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examples of public assistance programs for disabled people

cash assistance, food stamps, subsidized housing, social security (supplemental security income, SSI), and social security disability insurance (SSDI)

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what does social security disability insurance do

pays benefits to you and certain members of your family if you are insured, meaning that you have worked long enough and paid social security taxes

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what is the goal of public assistance programs

help aged, blind, and disabled people who have little or no income to provide cash to meet basic needs

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who funds SSI

general tax revenues

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who qualifies for SSI

person with disabilities with limited income and resources

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who are SI benefits payable to

adults and children who are disabled or blind

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what additional benefits can individuals on SSI or SSDI receive


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can those on SSI receive state supplements

yes, up to the states

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what funds SSDI

disability trust fund monies (social security taxes)

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who qualifies for SSDI

person with a disablity must be insured through federal insurance contributions act (FICA) earnings of self, parents, or spouse

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who are SSDI benefits payable to

workers or widowers who are disabled or adults who have been disabled since childhood

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do individuals receiving SSDI receive state supplements


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what is occupational health nursing practice and professionalism

on site health care professional, coordinates comprehensive and holistic services, follows AAOHN standards and code of ethics

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what is the role of the occupational health nurse in regards to professionalism

advocate for workers and uphold professional standards and codes

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what are common work related injuries that should be the focus of health and prevention strategies

work related injuries, repetitive motion injuries, homicide, chemical exposure, stress, hearing loss

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what services are often mandated by company policy

health services, staffing and operational standards, illness and return to work assessments, medical accommodations, professional education and development

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responsibilities of a forensic nurse

assessment and collection of evidence, witness testimony in court

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what is a sexual assault nurse examiner

collects evidence through a thorough exam and history, of a crime and testifies as a witness in trial, provides referrals and resources for crisis and support care

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what is the responsibility of a legal nurse consultant

provides assistance in legal system, reviews and interprets medical charts to provide objective opinions on standards of care

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what is the purpose of home health services

providing nursing care in the patients home and identifying refferals

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how can the nurse care for the patients primary caregiver

assess physical and mental health, reassure them that they can no do anything "wrong" and their decisions wont directly cause the death of their loved one

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what should a nurse do when preparing for a home visit

review referral form, contact the client to establish trusting relationship and get consent to conduct home visit

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what should a nurse do when conducting a home visit

observe environment on drive to clients home and the home itself, ask general questions about client and family, focus on health and safety of patients

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