Management Final Exam

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Groups

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212 Terms

1

Groups

Two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms, share collective goals, and have a common identity

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2

Team

A small group of people working together with a common purpose, performance goals, and mutual accountability

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3

Formal group

A group, headed by a leader, that is established to do something productive for the organization

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4

Informal group

A group formed by people seeking friendship that has no officially appointed leader, although a leader may emerge from the membership

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5

work team

team where there is a clear purpose, permanent and members must give their complete commitment in order for success

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6

project team

team assembled to complete a specific task

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7

Cross-functional teams

A team that is staffed with specialists pursuing a common objective

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8

Self-managed teams

Groups of workers who are given administrative oversight for their task domains

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9

Virtual teams

Teams that work together over time and distance via electronic media to combine effort and achieve common goals

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10

forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning

tuckmans five stage model

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11

forming

The first of the five stages of forming a team, in which people get oriented and get acquainted

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12

storming

The second of five stages of forming a team in which individual personalities, roles, and conflicts within the group emerge

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13

Norming

stage three, in which conflicts are resolved, lose relationships develop, and unity and harmony emerge

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14

Group cohesiveness

A “we feeling” that binds group members together

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15

Performing

The fourth of five stages of forming a team, in which members concentrate on solving problems and completing the assigned task

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16

Adjourning

the stage in which members of an organization prepare for disbandment

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17

Punctuated equilibrium

Establishes ­periods of stable functioning until an event causes a dramatic change in norms, roles, and/or objectives resulting in the establishment and maintenance of new norms of ­functioning, returning to equilibrium

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18

Collaboration

Act of sharing information and coordinating efforts to achieve a ­collective outcome

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19

Collaboration

foundation of teamwork

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20

false

t/f getting team members to collaborate is easy

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21

Trust

Reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behaviors

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22

credibility

what is trust based on

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23

authenticity, logic and empathy

components of trust triangle

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24

Team member interdependence

The extent to which team members rely on common task-related team inputs, such as resources, information, goals, and rewards, and the amount of interpersonal interactions needed to complete the work

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25

Team composition

Reflects the collection of jobs, personalities, values, knowledge, experience, and skills of team members

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26

Roles

Sets of behaviors that people expect of occupants of a position

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27

task, maintanance

two types of team roles

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28

task role

Behavior that concentrates on getting the team’s task done

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29

task

role that keeps the team on track

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30

Maintenance role

Relationship-related role consisting of behavior that fosters constructive relationships among team members

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31

Norms

General guidelines or rules of behavior that most group or team members follow

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32

Team processes

Team members’ interdependent acts that transform inputs to outcomes through activities directed toward organizing taskwork to achieve collective goals

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33

Team charter

Outlines how a team will manage teamwork activities

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34

Team reflexivity

A collective process by which members reflect on the team’s objectives, strategies, methods, and processes and adapt accordingly

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35

Team voice

The extent to which team members feel free to express opinions, concerns, proposals, or thoughts about work-related issues

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36

Team charter, reflexivity, voice

three additional team processses

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37

Conflict

Process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party

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38

Dysfunctional conflict

Conflict that hinders the organization’s performance or threatens its interests

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39

Functional conflict

Conflict that benefits the main purposes of the organization and serves its interests

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40

inactivity

too little conflict

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41

warfare

too much conflict

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42

personality, envy, intergroup dynamics and cultural differences

4 kinds of conflict

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43

personality conflict

Interpersonal opposition based on personal dislike, disagreement, or differing styles

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44

constructive conflict

conflict that can be very productive

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45

Programmed conflict

Conflict designed to elicit different opinions without inciting people’s personal feelings

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46

avoiding, dominating, integrating, obliging and compromising

five conflict handling styles

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47

avoiding

ignoring or suppressing a conflict

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48

dominating

forcing an outcome

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49

integrating

manager strives to confront the issue and cooperatively identify the problem

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50

Leadership

The ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals

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51

Leadership coaching

The process of enhancing the skills and abilities that a leader needs in order to help the organization achieve its goals

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52

leaders

help create a vision and strategic plan

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53

managers

implementing the vision and plan

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54

Managerial leadership

involves both influencing followers to internalize and commit to a set of shared goals, and facilitating the group and individual work that is needed to accomplish those goals

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55

Power

the ability to marshal human, informational, and other resources to get something done

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56

Personalized power

Power directed at helping oneself

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57

Socialized power

Power directed at helping others

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58

legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, referent and informational

the 6 powers

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59

legitimate

One of five sources of a leader’s power that results from formal positions with the organization

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60

reward

One of five sources of a leader’s power that results from the authority to reward subordinates

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61

Coercive

One of five sources of a leader’s power that results from the authority to punish

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62

Expert

One of five sources of a leader’s power, resulting from specialized information or expertise

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63

Referent

One of five sources of a leader’s power deriving from personal attraction

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64

Informational

Power deriving from one’s access to information

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65

Influence tactics

Are conscious efforts to affect and change behaviors in others

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66

rational persuasion

trying to convince someone with logic and reason

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67

inspirational appeals

trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others emotions

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68

consultation

getting others to participate in planning, decision making and changes

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69

ingratiation

getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request

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70

personal appeals

referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request or asking a friend for a favor

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71

exchange

making explicit or implied promises and trading favors

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72

coalition tactics

getting others to support your efforts to persuade someone

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73

pressure

demanding compliance or using intimidation

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74

legitimating tactics

basing a request on authrority or right, organizational rules or policies

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75

Trait approaches to leadership

Attempts to identify distinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of leaders

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76

Narcissism

A self-centered perspective, feelings of superiority, and a drive for personal power and glory

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77

Machiavellianism

A cynical view of human nature and condoning opportunistic and unethical ways of manipulating people, putting results over principles

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78

Psychopathy

A lack of concern for others, impulsive behavior, and a dearth of remorse when the psychopath’s actions harm others

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79

cognitive abilities

identify problems and their causes

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80

interpersonal skills

influence and persuade others

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81

business skills

maximize the organizational assets

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82

conceptual skills

draft and orgs mission, vision , strategies and implementation

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83

Behavioral leadership approaches

Attempts to determine the distinctive styles used by effective leaders

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84

Task-oriented leadership behaviors

Ensure that human, physical, and other ­resources are deployed efficiently and effectively to accomplish the group’s or organization’s goals

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85

Initiating-structure leadership

A leadership behavior that organizes and defines—that is, “initiates the structure for”—what employees should be doing to maximize output

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86

Production-centered leader behaviors

Emphasize the technical or task-related aspects of employees’ roles

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87

Relationship-oriented leadership

Form of leadership that is primarily concerned with the leader’s interactions with his or her people

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88

Consideration

A leadership behavior that is concerned with group members’ needs and desires and that is directed at creating mutual respect or trust

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89

Employee-centered leader behaviors

Emphasize relationships with subordinates and attention to their individual needs

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90

Situational approaches

An approach to leadership where it is believed that effective leadership behavior depends on the situation at hand

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91

Contingency leadership model

A model that determines if a leader’s style is (1) task-oriented or (2) relationship-oriented and if that style is effective for the situation at hand

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92

leader-member, task structure and position power

three dimensions of situational control

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93

high, low

task oriented style works best in either _____ control or ____ control situations

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94

high control

leaders decisions produce predictable results because they can influence outcomes

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95

low control

leaders decisions cant produce predictable results because they cant influence outcomes

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96

moderate

relationship oriented style works best in situations of _______ control

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97

Path–goal leadership model

Approach that holds that the effective leader makes available to followers desirable rewards in the workplace and increases their motivation by clarifying the paths, or behavior, that will help them achieve those goals and providing them with support

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98

leader behaviors, employee characteristics, environmental factors and leadership effectiveness

4 parts of path goal model

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99

employee characteristics and environmental factors

what determines leadership effectiveness

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100

Full-range leadership

Approach that suggests that leadership behavior varies along a full range of leadership styles, from take-no-responsibility (laissez-faire) “leadership” at one extreme through transactional leadership, to transformational leadership at the other extreme

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