APeuro tri 1 exam

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medici family

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248 Terms

1

medici family

-ruled Florence during the Renaissance -became wealthy from banking -spent a lot of money on art

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secularism

outside of the catholic church

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3

individualism

importance of the individual

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4

classical humanism

unlimited potential because humans have the ability to reason (greco-roman ideal)

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5

christian humanism

God made you

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6

Dontello [David] quattrocentro

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Botticelli [Birth of Venus] quattrocentro

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Botticelli [Allegory of Spring] quattrocentro

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9

quattrocentro

1400s centered in florence

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10

petrarch

father of italian renaissance humanism

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11

dante [divince comendy]

9 levels of hell, purgatory, and paradise

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12

castilglione [the courtier]

"how to" edict about be a good and well rounded courtier (person in the royal court)

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13

machiavelli [the prince]

-"how to" book about being a good prince/ ruler -"the ends justify the means" -continually focus on war -leaders should be feared not loved but never hated -be a lion and a fox

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14

cinquecentro

1500s centered in rome

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15

rome

focused on during the cinquecentro

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16

leonardo [mona lisa] cinquecentro

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17

leonardo [last supper] cinquecentro

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18

michelangelo [david] cinquecentro

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19

michelangelo [pieta] cinquecentro

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michelangelo [sistine chapel ceiling] cinquecentro

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michelangelo [moses/ julius II's tomb] cinquecentro

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22

michelangelo [last judgment] cinquecentro

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23

michelangelo [st peter's dome] cinquecentro

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24

raphael [julius II] cinquecentro

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raphael [leo X] cinquecentro

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26

raphael [school of athens] cinquecentro

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27

mirandola ["oration of the dignity of man"]

use the things that God gave to only humans to strive for excellence

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28

bruneleschi [duomo cathedral dome] quattrocento

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29

ghiberti [baptistry doors] quattrocentro

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30

printing press

-moveable type by gutenburg -propaganda/ persuasion -"common identity"/ vernacular

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31

gutenberg

invented the moveable type

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32

erasmus of rotterdam

a humanist scholar who developed Latin and Greek translations of the New Testament

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33

thomas more [utopia]

wrote a book about how the country should be governed but knew it was dangerous [he was executed in the tower of london]

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34

christian vs classical humanism

God made you vs humans have reason (greco-roman ideal)

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35

van eyck [marriage of giovanni and giovanna]

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36

pope alexander VI

-damaged the church and rome -abused his power (for his family) -very $$/ bought the votes in his election -son= cesar borgia (broke the vow of celibacy)

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37

cesare borgia

-cardinal -suspected of killing his brother -military official -pope alexander VI's son -machiavelli's ideal prince

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38

ferdinand and isabella

-marriage united spain -"catholic kings" -ended the reconquista -sponsored columbus -royal council checked aristocratic power -strengthened the church -spanish inquisition

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39

pope julius II

-"warrior pope" -political and religious career before papacy -fought in wars to gain all of italy -$$/ sold indulgences to fund war and art

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40

francis I of france

-talked to his people -ruled from prison -hunter in his free time -chose church officials for the gailican church -peace treaty w switzerland -brings renaissance to france (leonardo)

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41

florence

-large amounts of bankers and merchants -wool textile -ruled by medici family who beautified the city -alliances w european countrines -starting point of the renaissance [the renaissance was caused by the wealth of the northern italian cities]

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42

milan

-largest population -led by dukes of sforza -manufacturing and trade dominated -imported agriculture

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43

venice

-stable government -led by council of ten merchant aristocrats -east meets west -traded silk and spices

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44

papal states

-states owned by church -rome and surroundings

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45

lorenzo de medici

-co leader of florence -florence banker -brought artists to florence -"the wise"

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46

pope leo X

-excommunicated martin luther -part of the medici family -nepotism/indulgences/ sold church offices -extravagant pope/ spent $$$ -patron of the arts and theater -golden age of arts in rome -issued a jubilee indulgence to pay for st peter's basilica -called luther "a wild boar loose in the vineyard" -named henry VIII the title of defender of the faith (1475-1521)

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47

sforza family

ruled Milan as dukes and continued to serve as leaders of the city for most of the Renaissance period

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48

motivation for exploration

gold and spices and spreading religion

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49

henry the navigator

portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of africa

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50

antwerp

center of banking and commerce during the renaissance

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51

bartholomeu dias

sailed around africa to the cape of good hope but returned bc he feared mutiny from his crew

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52

columbus

thought he reached asia when he landed in the bahamas and cuba in the new world

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53

magellan

first to circumnavigate the world (killed by philippian natives)

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54

conquistador

a general term for a spanish conqueror of the americas

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55

encomienda

feudalism and manorialism in the new world

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56

slavery

result of the columbian exchange

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57

inflation

gold and silver decreases --> debasement of currency

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58

bullion

gold and silver

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59

tierra del fuego

"land of fire"/ large island at the southern tip of south america

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60

louis XI

-new monarch -foundation for french absolutism -"most christian king of france" title given by pope -admired by machiavelli -defeated the dukes of burgandy -replace feudalism -stabilized france -the "spider" king

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61

henry VII

-new monarch -parliament became tool of king -used royal council and council of star chamber to check aristocratic power -restored economy -did not trust the nobility

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62

indulgences

pardon sold by catholic church to reduce one's punishment for sin

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63

tetzel

dominican who sold indulgences in Germany "as soon as the coin the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs"

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64

wittenburg

the city in northern germany where luther nailed up his 95 theses

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65

95 theses

october 31, 1517 luther nailed his list of disapproval and problems with the church and the papal power to the wittenburg church door

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66

diet of augsburg

1530 called by charles V/ demanded lutherans to return to the catholic church

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67

diet of worms

1521 called by HRE charles V/ luther refused to recant his works so he was made an outlaw in the empire

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68

consubstantiation

luther's belief that the bread and wine is not changed but that christ is present in spirit only

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69

frederick of saxony

helped luther hide @ wartburg castle [saved his life]

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70

2 sacraments

baptism and communion

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71

peasant revolt

-1521 -vast following of luther by lower class -resentment of clerical wealth -peasants demand land -luther does not support the peasants revolt -revolt, violence, riot, theft, murder

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72

peace of augsburg

1555 -acknowledged divide in christianity -german ruler decides the religion of his subjects

  • no longer a united empire for charles v

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73

oct 31 1517

luther posts his 95 theses

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74

1555

peace of augsburg

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75

faith alone

luther's main claim, that one did not need good works to be saved

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76

hapsburg

-gave unity to europe -maxmillian I of austria married mary of burgundy -philip the fair marries juana of spain -grandson charles V

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77

"a might fortress is our God"

luther's hymn

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78

francis I

-king of france -persecuted protestants (why calvin fled paris)

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79

geneva

calvin's center of protestantism/ fortress of the reformation

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80

predestination

calvinist belief that God determined who would gain salvation pre-birth

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81

institutes of the christian religion

work by john calvin that described to the world the ideology of calvin

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82

huguenots

-french calvinists -persecuted

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83

john knox

spreads calvinism to scotland [presbyterians]

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84

presbyterians

calvinsits in scotland under john knox

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85

puritans

protestants in the anglican church that wanted to remove all catholicism from england's church (inspired by calvinism)

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86

elect

in calvinist doctrine, those who have been chosen by God for salvation

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87

damned

condemned by God to suffer eternal punishment in hell (calvinsim)

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88

calling

in protestantism, the belief that saved individuals have a religious obligation to engage in worldly work

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89

henry VIII

-king of england from 1509 to 1547 -wanted to annul his marriage with catherine of aragon but the pope refused so he broke off england from the roman catholic church and embraced protestantism -6 wives (had trouble producing a male heir) -act of supremacy and act of succession 1534

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90

thomas wolsey

-lord chancellor of england to henry VIII -released from office for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to catherine of aragon

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91

catherine of aragon

-first wife of henry VIII -mother of mary I -henry's desire for a divorce from her caused england's break with rome -banished and died while gone

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92

anne boleyn

-second wife of henry VIII -mother of elizabeth I -lady in waiting to queen catherine of aragon -executed for treason

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93

"defender of the faith"

title given given by the pope to henry VIII before his split with the catholic church

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94

charles V

-HRE, king of spain, ruler of the netherlands and austria -wanted to keep europe religiously united and catholic -wanted to stop protestantism -preocuppied with struggles with turkey and france and could not solely focus on the rise of protestantism in germany -called the diet of worms against luther

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95

annulment

the declaration by the church that a marriage never existed as a sacramental union (catholics who divorce must have the marriage annulled by the church to be free to marry once again)

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96

mary tudor "bloody mary"

-killed lady jane grey -married philip II of spain -violently turned england back to catholicism [kills protestants] -england and spain fight france and england loses calais -died 1558 -henry VII and catherine of aragon's daughter

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97

elizabeth I of england

-henry VIII and anne boleyn's daughter -protestant -ruled after bloody mary -stability -defeat of the spanish armada

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98

oath of supremacy

declared the ruler of england as the head of the church

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99

oath of succession

if the ruler of england had no male heir, their female heir could take power

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100

thomas more

-english humanist -revealed the complexities of man -wote utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society -killed bc he wouldn't sign the oath of supremacy

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