Bio Quarterly 1

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plasma membrane

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Biology

9th

213 Terms

1

plasma membrane

boundary between cell and its environment it allows things in or out of the cells and allows the cell to maintain homeostasis

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2

selectively permeable

allows some molecules in but not others and only in certain amounts

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3

examples of molecules that pass freely

water, glucose, O2, gas, CO2

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4

example of molecules that are regulated

proteins, all ions (Na+, CI-), large molecules

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5

Stucture of Plasma Membrane

composed of a phospholipid bilayer; two fatty acid tails which are non-polar and phosphate head which is polar

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6

fluid mosaic model

model of the plasma membrane; fluid bc its flexible and mosaic bc there are so many proteins that are embedded in the membrane

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7

choloesterol

found in the Plasma membrane to help stabilize the phospholipids and prevents them from sticking together

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8

transport proteins

act like tunnels and assist molecules moving in and out

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9

passive transport

diffusion through the plasma membrane that requires no energy

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10

Diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

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11

Osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane; water will always move until its equal on both sides

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12

solute

substance being dissolved

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13

solvent

substance doing the dissolving

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14

isotonic solution

concentration of water in the cell is equal to the water outside the cell

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15

hypotonic solution

concentration of solute is lower outside the cell; causes cell to swell

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16

hypertonic

concentration of solute is greater outside the cell than inside; causes cell to shrivel

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17

facilitated diffusion

type of passive transport where substances cross the PM through a protein channel because they are polar

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18

types of passive transport

diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion

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19

types of active transport

endocytosis, exocytosis, protein pumps, contractile vacuole

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20

active transport

transport that requires ATP (energy)

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21

sodium-potassium pump

A special transport protein in the plasma membrane that transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients.

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22

Endocytosis

when a cell engulfs a large molecule or even an entire cell and a portion of the PM will wrap around the molecule forming a vesicle

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23

what are the two types of endocytosis?

phagocytosis and pinocytosis

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24

Phagocytosis

the cell taking in solid material; cell eating

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25

Pinocytosis

the cell taking in liquid material; cell drinking

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26

Exocytosis

cell expelling materials such as waste, indigestible particles, and hormones

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27

contractile vacuole

an organelle in freshwater protists that remove remove excess water from the cell

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28

cell

smallest unit of life

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29

what is the cell theory?

All living things are made up of cells, cells are the basic unit of living things, new cells are produced from existing cells

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30

Unicellular

A single celled organism

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31

Multicellular

made of many cells

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32

Examples of unicellular organisms

bacteria, amoeba, paramecium

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33

prokaryotic cell

type of cell bacteria are made of that have no nucleus and has a cell wall

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34

Archeabacteria

ancient bacteria; live in extreme conditions

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35

Eubacteria

all other bacteria fall into this category

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36

Eukaryotic cells

Contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.

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37

Plasma (cell) membrane

a flexible boundary of a cell that is made up a phospholipid bilayer; in all cells

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38

selectively permeable

controls what passes in or out

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39

Cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles reside; in every cell

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40

ribosomes

where proteins are made; in every cell

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41

where can you find ribosomes?

Rough ER and cytoplasm

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42

What must all cells have?

Cytoplasm, cell membrane, genetic material, ribosomes, cytoskeleton

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43

Nucelus

Control center of the cell that holds DNA; in all eukaryotic cells

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44

DNA

directions to make proteins; in all cells

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45

Chromosomes

condensed DNA

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46

chromation

uncondensed DNA

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47

Nucleolus

dense area inside nucleus that produces ribosomes; in all eukaryotes

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48

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

tubes and channels that transport materials throughout the cell; in all eukaryotes

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49

smooth ER

ER that has no ribosomes

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50

rough ER

ER that is dotted with ribosomes

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51

Golgi apparatus

after proteins and lipids arrive in vesicles they go here to be packaged and shipped; in all eukaryotic cells

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52

vesicle

sacs that move through the cytoplasm in and out of the cell; in all eukaryotes

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53

Lysosomes

sacs filled with powerful digestive enzymes that digest things like worn out cell parts; only in animal cells

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54

central vacuole

used for storage of water, minerals, and salts in a plant cell; only in plant cells

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55

Mitochondria

produces ATP for the cell by breaking down glucose (cellular respiration); in all eukaryotic cells

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56

Chloroplast

does photosynthesis and creates the pigment chlorophyll which makes plants green; only in plant cell

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57

cell wall

strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane; in plant, fungi, bacteria, and some protist cells

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58

Cytoskeleton

gives the cell shape, organization, and structure; present in all cells

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59

What is the cytoskeleton made of?

microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate fibers

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60

Centrioles

helps separate chromosomes during mitosis; only in animal cells

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61

Flagella

whiplike tails structure for movement; only found in some types of cells but can be found in both prokaryote and eukaryote

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62

cilia

short hair-like extensions for movement and sometimes feeding; only found in some types of cells but can be found in both prokaryote and eukaryote

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63

What makes eukaryotes different from prokaryotes?

has a nucleus and more organelles

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64

What makes prokaryotes different from eukaryotes?

they have no nucleus and they are less complex

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65

what makes an animal cell different from a plant cell?

has lysosomes, centrioles, more circular in shape, and has no cell wall, chloroplasts, or central vacuole

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66

what makes a plant cell different from an animal cell?

has a cell wall, chloroplast, and central vacuole, more rectangular in shape

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67

Robert Hooke

looked at a cork through a microscope and found cells and named them cells

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68

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

made first simple microscope and looked at pond water through it and saw the first living cells

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69

Robert Brown

discovered the nucleus

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70

M.J. Schleiden

said plants are made of cells

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71

Theodor Schwann

said all animals are made of cells

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72

Rudolf Virchow

proposed that new cells are formed only from cells that already exist ("every cell from a cell")

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73

endosymbiotic theory

eukaryotic life began when a prokaryotic cell took up residence inside another prokaryotic cell and evolved into mitochondria and chloroplasts

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74

what evidence do we have to support the endosymbiotic theory?

both have their own DNA and ribosomes that resembles eukaryotic structure, same size and shape, have two membranes inner membrane was their own membrane and the outer was the membrane of the cell they resided in

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75

what are the levels of multicellular organisms?

cell, tissue, organs, organ system, organism

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76

what are the five kingdoms?

Monera, Protists, Plants, Fungi, Animals

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77

functions of proteins

build strong structures, transport things things throughout the body, speed up chemical reaction

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78

elements in proteins

C, H, O, N, S

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79

what is the monomer of proteins?

amino acids

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80

how many types of amino acids are there?

20 types

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81

what are the three parts of amino acids?

amino group (NH2), carboxyl group (COOH), "R" group

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82

What are the polymers of proteins?

proteins; polypeptides

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83

what are the bonds between amino acids called?

peptide bonds

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84

enzymes

speed up chemical reactions by lowering activation energy

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85

substrate

the molecule entering a reaction

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86

activation energy

Energy needed to get a reaction started

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87

lock and key

each enzyme is specially designed for one type of substrate

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88

denature

to lose its shape irreversibly

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89

primary structure of protein (1°)

sequence of amino acids

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90

secondary structure of protein (2°)

hydrogen bonds form between different amino acids cause strain to form helix or pleated sheet shape

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91

tertiary structure of protein (3°)

R-groups interact causing folding (last stage for some proteins)

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92

quaternary structure

2 or more amino acid chains join together (not all proteins reach this stage)

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93

active site

a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.

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94

what is the function of nucleic acids?

store genetic code that tells cells how to make proteins in the form of a code

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95

what are the elements in nucleic acids?

C, H, O, N, P

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96

what are the monomers of nucleic acids called?

nucleotides

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97

what are the three parts of a nucleotide?

a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group

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98

what are the letters of the nitrogen base for DNA?

G,A,C,T

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99

what are the letters of the nitrogen base for RNA?

G,A,C,U

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100

what are the polymers for nucleic acids

DNA and RNA

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