bio exam two

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1

robert hooke

1st to involve cells in 1665

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2

schleiden and schwann

proposed cell theory

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rate of cell’s diffusion is affected by

1) surface area available

2) temperature

3) concentration gradient

4) distance

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4

as cell size increases, the time for diffusion

increases

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5

as cell size increases, volume

increases more rapidly than surface area

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rate of transport depends on

distance to membrane and area of membrane available

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resolution

minimum distance two points can be apart and still be distinguished as two separate points

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transmission electron microscopes

transmit electrons through material

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spanning electrons microscope

beam electrons onto specimen surface

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10

all cells share simple structural features

1) nucleus/nucleoid with genetic material

2) cytoplasm

3) ribosomes to synthesize proteins

4) plasma membrane

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centrally located genetic material in prokaryotes

  • non-membrane bound nucleoid

  • single circular molecule of DNA

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12

centrally located genetic material in eukaryotes

DNA organized into linear chromosomes segregated into nucleus

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cytoplasm

semifluid matrix interior of cell

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ribosomes

large, macromolecular machines composed of RNA and protein that synthesize cellular proteins

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plasma membrane is

phospholipid bilayer

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prokaryotic cells are

simples organisms

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two domains of prokaryotes

archaea and bacteria

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there are no organelles

common to all prokaryotes

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magnetosome

  • in bacteria that can move along magnetic field

  • consist of spherical membranes with iron oxide crystals

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prokaryotes can have infoldings of plasma membrane to

segregate metabolic reactions

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bacterial microcompartments

  • cellular compartments bound by semipermeable protein shell

  • isolate specific metabolic process or store particular substance

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22

cytoskeletons influence

shape of cell wall

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cell wall determines

strength and shape of cell

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bacterial cell walls are composed of

peptidogylcan

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antibiotics target

cell wall to burst cell

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components of prokaryotic cell

  • cell wall

  • capsule

  • flagella

  • pili/fimbriae

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capsule

enables cell to attach to surfaces in environment

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flagella

locomotion

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pili/fimbriae

exchange genetic material during conjugation

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archaeal membrane lipids have

saturated hydrocarbons that are covalently attached to glycerol at both ends

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bacterial flagella

protein rings embedded in plasma membrane with extending cell wall

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archaeal flagella

disk of membrane proteins with extending protein filaments (pilus)

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hallmark of eukaryotic cells

compartmentalization; achieved through membrane-bound organelles and endomembrane system

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both plant and animal cells have

  • plasma membranes

  • vesicles

  • cytoskeleton

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35

plant cells have

  • central vacuole

  • cell wall outside of plasma membrane

  • internal chloroplasts

  • specialized vacuoles

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nucelus is

largest organelle in eukaryotic cell

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nucleus has

genetic info for protein synthesis

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nucleolus

region of ribosomal RNA synthesis

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nuclear envelope is composed of

two phospholipid bilayer membranes; outer membrane is continuous with ER

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40

nuclear pores are found on

surface of nuclear envelope

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nuclear pores

  • allow ions/small molecules to diffuse between nucleoplasm and cytoplasm

  • control passage of proteins and RNA-protein complexes

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in eukaryotes, DNA is

divided into multiple linear chromosomes

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chromatin

chromosomes organized with protein

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two subunits of ribosomes

ribosomal RNA and proteins; only join to form when actively synthesizing proteins

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messenger RNA

carries coding info from DNA to direct protein synthesis

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transfer RNA

carries amino acids

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ribosomal RNA

carries out protein synthesis in ribosomes

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endomembrane system

  • only in eukaryotes

  • series of membranes throughout cytoplasm that divides cells into compartments for different cellular functions

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endoplasmic reticulum

  • largest internal membrane

  • phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins

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largest components of ER

  • cisternal space/lumen: space inside

  • cytosol: exterior

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rough ER

  • ribosomes attached to membrane

  • depending on protein’s sequence, either sends it to lysosomes/vacuoles or embeds in plasma membrane

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smooth ER

  • synthesize carbs, lipids, steroids

  • stores intracellular Ca2+

  • modifies foreign substances to be less toxic

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golgi apparatus

package and distribute molecules synthesized at one location and used at another

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molecules from golgi apparatus arrive at

cis face by transport vesicles

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molecules from golgi apparatus exit through

trans face by secretory vesicles

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lysosomes

membrane-bound digestive vesicle that arise from golgi apparatus

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lysosomes contain enzymes that

catalyze breakdown of macromolecules and eliminate engulfed cells by phagocytosis

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lipid droplets

neutral lipid core surrounded by single layer of phospholipid

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microbodies

variety of vesicles with enzymes in eukaryotic cells

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peroxisomes

microbodies that oxidize fatty acids

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large central vacuole

  • store dissolved substances

  • expands to increase tonicity of plant cell

  • cell growth

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tonoplast

membrane-bound vacuole with channels for water to maintain tonicity and osmotic balance

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plant cells grow by

expanding vacuole

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contractile vacuole

pump water to maintain water balance in cell

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storage vacuole

for storage or segregating toxic materials from rest of cytoplasm

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structural similarities of mitochondria and chloroplasts

  • double membrane

  • contain their own DNA and protein synthesis machinery

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functional similarities of mitochondria and chloroplasts

energy metabolism

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structure of mitochondria

  • outer membrane

  • intermembrane space

  • inner membrane with cristae

  • matrix

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structure of chloroplasts

  • outer membrane

  • inner membrane

  • granum (stacks of thylakoid disks)

  • stroma (cytoplasm)

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thylakoids

light-capturing photosynthetic pigments on surface

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stroma

fluid matrix with enzymes to synthesize glucose during photosynthesis

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plastids

organelles in photosynthetic eukaryotes that are site of photosynthesis (chloroplasts, leucoplasts, amyloplasts)

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endosymbiosis

eukaryotic cells evolved from symbiosis between different species of prokaryotes

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cytoskeleton

network of protein fibers that support shape of cell and anchor organelles to fixed location

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three types of fibers

  • microfilaments/actin filaments

  • microtubules

  • intermediate filaments

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microfilaments

two loosely twined protein chains of actin

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cellular movement of microfilaments

contraction, crawling, pinching

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microtubules

  • largest fiber; tubulin subunits

  • organize cytoplasm and move materials within cell

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intermediate filaments

fibrous protein molecules twined together in overlapping arrangement; most durable

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centrioles

barrel-shaped pairs of organelles in animals and protists

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centrosome

  • region surrounding centrioles

  • divides and organizes spindle fibers during mitosis/meiosis

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centrosomes are not in

plants and fungi

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at leading edge of cell

actin filaments polymerize—> extension forces edge of cell forward to move

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84

cell walls in plants and protists

cellulose

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cell walls in fungi

chitin

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86

extracellular matrix

mix of glycoproteins around animal cell (sub. for cell wall)

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integrins

  • extend into cytoplasm and attach to microfilaments and intermediate filaments

  • influence cell behavior; important for plasma membrane

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adhesive junctions include

  • adherens junctions

  • desmosomes

  • hemidesmosomes

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89

adhesive junctions

attach cytoskeletons of neighboring cells or cells to ECM

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separate/tight junctions

connect plasma membranes of adjacent cells in sheet so materials pass through, but not between

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communicating junctions include

gap junctions and plasmodesmata

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communicating junctions

chemical/electrical signal passes directly from one cell to adjacent one

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surface markers

integral proteins or glycolipids in plasma membrane that identify cell

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adheren junctions are formed by

cadherin molecules on cell surface

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cadherin

single-pass transmembrane protein

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desmosomes

cadherin-based junction unique to vertebrates

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separate junctions are in

invertebrates and vertebrates

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tight junctions

unique to vertebrates; contain claudins

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gap junctions are in

invertebrates and vertebrates

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100

gap junctions permit

small substances (simple sugars, amino acids) to pass between cells

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