gross anatomy quiz 1

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what is the regional anatomy approach

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what is the regional anatomy approach

focuses on a specific part/area/region of the body by examining the arrangement and relationships of the systematic structures within it.

example: thorax

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what is surface anatomy

provides knowledge about what lies under the skin and what structures are palpable in the body. includes landmarks that guide you to what is below.

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what are the regions of the body

Thorax, Abdomen, Pelvis & Perineum, Back, Lower limb, Upper limb, Head, Neck

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what is systematic anatomy

study of the bodys organ systems that work together to carry out complex functions

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what are the body systems

integumentary, articular, nervous, lymphatic, respiratory, reproductive, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, endocrine

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what is clinical anatomy

deals with the aspects of the body’s structure and function as they relate to the practice of medicine

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what does clinical anatomy incorporate

the regional and systematic approaches

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what is the integumentary system

the skin

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what is the primary function of the integumentary system

protection. the skin protects internal structures/fluids, prevents the entry of disease causing organisms, and pigmentary protection from UV light

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what are the other functions of the integumentary systems

containment (of tissues/organs/fluids), heat regulation (through perspiration and insulation), sensation (by nerves and sensory endings), production and storage of Vitamin D, most of body’s fat storage

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what is the largest organ system

the integumentary system

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what are the three layers of the skin? superficial to deep?

epidermis, dermis, hypodermis

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characteristics of epidermis

keratinized epithelium (dead skin), avascular, usually 4-5 layers

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characteristics of dermis

loose and dense connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers, vascular (if your skin bleeds its from here), specialized structures (hair follicles, nerves, glands, nerve receptors)

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characteristics of hypodermis

subcutaneous, connective and adipose (fat) tissue, vascular, and specialized structures (nerves, blood vessles, lymphatics)

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what is deep fascia

dense connective tissue that covers most of the body. deep to skin. covers whole body and connects to other things

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what is investing fascia

deep fascia that surrounds indivudual deep structures, such as around muscles

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what is a fascial compartment

surrounds grouped structures with similar functions, such as a muscle compartment

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what is intramuscular septa

thick fascia that separates compartments and attaches to bone

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what is retinaculum

thick fascia to hold tendons in place (think wrist, ankle)

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what is subserous fascia

between internal surface of musculoskeletal walla and serous membranes lining the body

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what is a bursa

a closed sac of serous membrane that are normally collapsed/closed. potential space in areas with friction. can fill with fluids and be bad

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what are the three examples of bursa

pericardial sac (heart), pleural sac (lung), peritoneal sac (peritoneum)

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what is a serous membrane

tissue capable of secreting a thin layer of fluid (serous fluid) to lubricate a smooth internal surface

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what is the visceral layer

inner layer of serous sac, next to the organ or structure. DIRECT contact

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what is the parietal layer

the outer layer of serous sac next to body wall. contact with OTHER structures

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what do the layers allow the surrounded structure to do?

move freely

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what are the two parts of the skeletal system

axial (skull, spine, sternum, ribs), appendicular (limbs, shoulder, and pelvic girdles)

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what is the skeletal system composed of

cartilage and bones

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what is cartilage

avascular connective tissue that is in areas of flexibility and movement. also covers weight bearing articular surfaces of bone

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what are the three types of cartilage

elastic, fibrous, hyaline

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how does cartilage get its nutrients due to no blood flow


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characteristics of bone

“living”, highly vascular; provides support, protection, mechanical basis for movement, storage of calcium, new blood cells

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what are the two types of bones

compact and spongey (more porous). both are very dense and strong

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where is coastal cartilage located

ONLY in the ribs

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where is articular cartilage


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what are skeletal articulations


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what is a joint

a union or junction between two or more bones

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what do joints have

a vascular and nerve supply

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what is proprioception

articular nerves transmit sensory impulses from the joint which contribute to proprioception, providing awareness of movement and position of body parts

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how are joints classified

based on the manner or type of material by which the bones are united

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what are the three types of bones

synovial (main joints, always mobile), fibrous (dense fiber held together), cartilaginous (fibrous pads)

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what are features of synovial joints

ligament, joint capsule (fibrous capsule and synovial membrane), joint cavity, articular cartilage

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what are features of fibrous joints

connective fibrous cartilage that holds joints together. interosseous membrane

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what are features of cartilaginous joints

intervertebral discs, epiphyseal plaee

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what are the 6 types of synovial joints

pivot, ball and socket, plane, hinge, saddle, condyloid

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what is a pivot joint and example

a rounded process of a bone fits into a bony ligamentous socket, permitting rotation.

example: atlano-axial joint of neck

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what is a ball and socket joint and example

a rounded head fits into a concavity, permitting movement on several axes

example: hip joint

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what is a plane joint and example

permit gliding and sliding movements (up/down or backward/forward)

example: acromioclavicular joint of the clavical and acromion of scapula

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what is a hinge joint and example

permit flexion and extension only

example: elbow joint, also knee joint but knee does some rotation

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what is a saddle joint and example

saddle shaped heads permit movement in two different planes

example: carpometacarpal joint of trapezium and first metacarpal (knuckle)

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what is a condyloid joint and example

permit flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, and circumduction. provides almost as much motion as a ball and socket joint

example: metacarpophalangeal joint of metacarpal and proximal phalanx (above first knuckle)

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what is the function of the muscular system

to move body parts or change the shape of internal organs

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what are the three types of muscle

skeletal striated (voluntary somatic), cardiac striated (involuntary visceral), smooth striated (involuntary visceral)

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what are striations

lines on muscles, how proteins are lined up

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what are voluntary muscles

muscles you have control over

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what are involuntary muscles

muscles you do not have control over

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what are somatic muscles

skeletal muscles

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what are visceral muscles


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what do some muscle tendons form

aponeuroses (flat sheet of tendon for anchoring to skeleton or deep fascia)

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what are the two ends of the muscle

origin (proximal, fixed end where the muscle starts)

insertion (distal, movable end where the muscle ends. this is mobile and crosses a joint)

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what is the agonist function

this is the prime mover

example: bicep

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what is the synergist function

assists the agonist

example: biceps brachii

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what is the antagonist function

opposes the agonist and/or synergist

example: tricep

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what is the fixator function

stabilizes the proximal end for more efficient distal movement. core stability for peripheral mobility

example: rotator cuff

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what does the muscle do when it crosses a specific joint?

it will act on that joint

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nerve interaction with muscles

usually innervate functional groups of muscles that are within a common fascial compartment

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artery interactions with muscles

generally supply the structures they contact.

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what are the two parts of the circulatory system

cardiovascular and lymphatic

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what are the two parts of the cardiovascular system

heart and blood vessels

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what is the function of blood

carries nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from cells

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what two sub-systems does the heart divide the cardiovascular system into

pulmonary circulation (blood to and from lungs)

systemic circulation (blood to and from the body)

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what are the three types of blood vessels




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what do arteries do

carries oxygenated blood to organs of the body. under high pressure

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what do veins do

return deoxygenated blood from capillary beds to the heart. under low pressure. veins usually accompany named arteries

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what do capillaries do

-connect arterioles and venules

- allow exchange of extracellular fluid

- arranged in capillary beds

-the portal venous system links 2 capillary beds

ex- hepatic portal vein

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what does the lymphatic system do

drains surplus fluid from extracellular spaces to the bloodstream, plays a major part in immunity, and absorbs and transports dietary fat

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what does the lymphatic system consist of?

-lymphatic plexuses (network of lymphatic capillaries)

-lymphatic vessels (network of vessels with valves that follow arteries and veins)

-lymph (fluid)

-lymph nodes (filter lymph)

-lymphocytes (immune system cells)

-lymphoid organs (produce lymphocytes such as thymus, red bone marrow, spleen, tonsils, lymphoid nodules)

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what does the lymphatic system rely on

arteries/veins/muscles to push through since there is no pump

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what are the 2 major ducts for drainage

right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct

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what does the right lymphatic duct do

drains right upper quadrant into right venous angle (junction of right internal jugular and right subclavian veins)

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what does the thoracic duct do

drains remainder of the body into left venous angle (junction of left internal jugular and left subclavian veins)

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where does the majority of drainage go

the thoracic duct

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what is the function of the nervous system

allows the body to react to changes in the environment. controls the activities of other systems within the body

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what two parts is the nervous system ANATOMICALLY divided into

the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)

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what makes up the CNS

the brain and spinal cord ONLY

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what makes up the PNS

12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves. also the nerve fibers and their cell bodies outside the CNS

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what is the nervous system FUNCTIONALLY divided into

the somatic nervous system (SNS) and the autonomic (visceral) nervous system (ANS)

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what is the somatic nervous system (SNS)

provides sensory and motor innervation to all body parts except the viscera, smooth muscle and glands. controls primary voluntary activities.

skeletal muscles!!

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what is the autonomic nervous system (ANS)

controls primarily involuntary activities. provides sensory and motor to viscera, glands, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle

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what are the two main cell types nervous tissue consists of

neurons and neuroglia

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what are neurons

-a structural/functional unit

-consists of a cell body with dendrites that carry signals to cell body and axons

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what are the two types of neurons

multipolar motor neurons and pseudounipolar sensory neurons

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what are multipolar motor neurons

several dendrites and one axon. super excitable and determines if something will get responded to

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what are pseudounipolar sensory neurons

double process from the cell body, called a peripheral process and a central process. the peripheral process comes in, and the central process leaves and goes to the CNS

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what are synapses

points of communication between neurons

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what are neuroglia

part of nervous tissue. non-neuronal, non-excitable supporting cell. such as muscle cells

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what do several axons together in the PNS make

a nerve

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what is the function of the CNS

integrates and coordinates higher mental functions

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parts of brain

-outer cortex composed of gray matter which consist mainly of nerve cell bodies

-inner cortex composed of white matter which consists mainly of axons forming tracts and ventricles, filled with CSF (cerebral spinal fluid)

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