psychology/sociology MCAT

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Operational definition

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352 Terms

1

Operational definition

specification of precisely what they mean by each variable

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2

Placebo effect

believing that treatment is being administered can lead to a measurable result

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3

Double blind

neither the person administering treatment nor the participants truly know if they are assigned to the treatment of control groups

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4

What is the double blind used for?

Counter the placebo effect

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5

Randomized block technique

Where participants fall along the variables they wish to homogenize, then randomly assign individuals from these groups so the variable of interest is similar between control and experiment

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6

reliable

They measure what they’re supposed to and repeated measurements lead to similar results

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7

null hypothesis

assume that there is no causal relationship between the variables and any measured effect

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8

significant difference

measured difference between two groups that is large enough that it is probably not due to chance

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9

External validity application

Makes it difficult to apply our conclusion to the real world

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10

Examples of external validity

Experiment does not reflect real world

Selection criteria is too inclusive/exclusive

Situational effects

Lack of power

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11

Internal validity application

If the experiment is considered well done and we can be sure that the conclusion is just and makes sense

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12

Examples of internal validity

Responses based on social norms

Confounding variables

Lack of reliability

Sampling bias

Attrition effects

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13

Non-experiment study types

Correlational studies

Ethnographic studies

Twin studies

Longitudinal studies

Case studies

Phenomenological studies

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14

Correlational studies

Relationship between two quantitative variables

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15

What is the most common type of correlation

Pearson correlation

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16

Ethnographic studies

researchers immerse themselves completely in the lives of the people they are studying

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17

What do twin studies test

Relationship between nature and nurture + measure heritability

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18

Longitudinal studies

Intervallic measurements of a dependent variable over long time frames

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19

Case studies

in-depth exploration of one individual or case

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20

Phenomenological studies

using the introspective method to explore research questions (aka studying yourself)

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21

Society

collection of individuals who share a culture

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22

Sociology

understand the behavior of societies

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23

What is the oldest theory of sociology

Functionalism

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24

Functionalism

Conceptualizes society as a living organism with many different parts and organs, each of which have a distinct purpose

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25

Dynamic equilibrium

structure of society is constantly changing, but also evolving in a way that maintains its health and stability

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26

Social facts

Type of rules that help society function

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27

Social facts examples

Laws, morals, values, religions, customs, rituals, and rules

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28

Manifest functions

intended and obvious consequences of a social structure

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29

Latent functions

Unintended or less recognizable consequences

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30

Conflict theory

Views society as a competition for limited resources

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31

Symbolic interactionism

Focuses on exchange of information through language and symbols

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32

Dramaturgical approach

people are theatrical performers and everyday life is a stage

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33

Social constructionism

People actively shape their reality through social interactions, thus, reality socially constructed and not inherent

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34

Social construct

Everybody in society agreeing to treat a certain aspect a certain way regardless of its inherent value

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35

Rational choice theory

The reason for a choice is that it provides the greatest reward at the lowest cost

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36

Social exchange theory

There are costs and benefits to interactions and relationship, in which we prefer thee greatest personal benefit

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37

Religiosity

Extent of influence of religion in a person’s life

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Fundamentalists

Individuals who adhere strictly to religious beliefs

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39

Rational-legal authority

Legal rules and regulations are stipulated in a document

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40

Traditional authority

Power due to custom, tradition, or accepted practice

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41

Charismatic authority

Individuales acquire power via persuasion

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42

Capitalism

resources and production are mainly privately owned and goods/services are produced for a profit

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43

Socialism

resources and production are collectively owned

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44

Welfare capitalism

Most of the economy is private with the exception of extensive social welfare programs to serve certain needs within society

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State capitalism

companies are privately run, but work closely with the government in forming laws and regulations

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46

Food desert

fresh food is difficult to find typically in a highly populated lower-income urban environment

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47

Culture

shared way of life, including the beliefs and practices that a social group shares

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48

Symbolic culture

symbols that are recognized by people of the same culture

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49

Material culture

physical objects or artifacts

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50

Non-material culture

Thoughts, ideas, and values in a society

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51

Popular culture

features of culture that appeal to the masses, often communicated through mass media (like TV or radio)

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High culture

Describes those features held in high esteem as exemplary

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53

Cultural universals

patterns or traits that are common to all people across different societies

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54

Sociobiology

Study of how biology and evolution have affected human social behavior

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55

Cultural diffusion

transfer of elements of culture from one social group to another

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56

Cultural transmission

Elements of culture is spread across generations

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57

Social change

societies experience a change in state

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58

Transition shock

Period of adjustment when experiencing social change

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59

Culture shock

Disorientation from being subjected to alternative cultures and foreign environments

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60

Reverse culture shock

Disorientation from being subjected to your initial culture and environment after returning from a foreign environment

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61

Sociocultural evolution

Set of theories describing the processes through which societies and cultures have progressed over time

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62

Population

Collection of people in a defined geographical area

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63

Crude birth rate

Annual number of births per 1000 people in a population

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Crude death rate

Annual number of deaths per 1000 persons in a population

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65

Rate of population change

Difference between crude birth rate and crude death rate

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66

Fertility

Ability of an individual to reproduce

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67

Fecundity

Actual measured reproductive rate of an individual or population

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68

General/total fertility rate

Predicts the total number births per single women in a population

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69

Replacement fertility rate

Fertility rate at which the population will remain balanced

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70

Sub-replacement fertility

Birth rate is less than the death rate, thus, population will not be sustained

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71

Population-lag effect

changes in total fertility rates are not reflected in the birth rate for several generations

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72

Population momentum

Children produced during periods of higher fertility rates reproduce

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73

Mortality

death rate in a population

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Morbidity

nature and extent of disease in a population

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Prevalence rate

Number of individuals experiencing a diseaseI

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incidence rate

Number of new cases of a disease

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77

Case fatality rate

measures deaths as the result of a set diagnosis or procedure

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78

Infant mortality rate

annual number of deaths per 1000 infants under one year of age

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79

Life expectnacy

Number of years that an individual at a given age can expect to live at present mortality rates

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80

Migration

geographical movement of individuals

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81

Nomadism

traditional method of continuous travel in search of natural resources as a method of sustenance

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External migration

Migration to another nation

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Internal migration

Migration to another region of the same nation

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Voluntary migration

Internal factors (personal decision) to migrate

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Involuntary migration

External factors that pose a threat to the individual in their initial environments

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Immigration

entering a new area

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Emigration

leaving an old area

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Reverse migration

return of individuals to their former homes

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89

Push factors

things that are unattractive about an area and may influence people to leave

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90

Genocide

mass execution with the intention of eliminating a specific social group

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91

Pull factors

things that are attractive about an area and may attract people

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92

Social geography

spatial distribution of individuals and social groups

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93

Urbanization

growth of urban areas as the result of global change

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94

Industrialization

societies transform from agrarian to industrial in nature

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95

Rural flight

migration from rural areas to urban areas from the other perspective

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96

Suburbanization

population growth on the fringes of urban areas

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97

Suburbs

Residential satellite communities located in the peripheral regions of major urban centers that are connected to the cities in some fashion

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98

White flight

migration of whites from cities to more racially homogenous suburbs

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99

Urban sprawl

migration of people from urban areas to otherwise remote areas

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Urban blight

less functioning areas of large cities degrade as a result of urban decline

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