AP CS Principles Terms and Vocab 2023

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146 Terms

1

List

ordered collection of elements

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Element

individual value in a list that is assigned a unique index

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3

Index

number used for referencing the elements in a list or string

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4

Iteration

repetitive portion of an algorithm which repeats a specified number of times or until a given condition is met

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5

Infinite Loop

occurs when the ending condition of an ineration will never evaluate to true

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6

Traversal

accessing each item in a list one at a time

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7

Append

adding an element to the end of a list

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8

Data Abstraction

collection of data to manage complexity without referencing specific details of the representation

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9

Logic Error

mistake in the algorithm or program that causes it to behave incorrectly or unexpectedly

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10

Simulation

abstractions of more complex objects or phenomena for a specific purpose.

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11

Substring

part of an existing string

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12

User Interface

inputs and outputs that allow a user to interact with a piece of software

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13

Input

data sent to a computer for processing by a program

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14

Output

data sent from a program to a device

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15

Program Statement

code command or instruction

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16

Program

collection of program statements.

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17

Sequential Programming

program statements run in order, from top to bottom

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18

Event Driven Programming

when program statements run when triggered by an event

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19

Documentation

written description of how/why a command or piece of code works or was developed.

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20

Comment

documentation written into the program to be read by people and which do not affect how a program runs

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21

Pair Programming

collaborative style in which two programmers switch between the roles of writing code and tracking or planning high level progress

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22

Debugging

finding and fixing problems in an algorithm or program

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23

Development process

steps or phases used to create a piece of software (e.g. investigating, designing, prototyping, and testing)

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24

Event

associated with an action and supplies input data to a program, and can be generated by any action that affects the flow of execution

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25

Incremental Development Process

breaks the problem into smaller pieces and makes sure each piece works before adding it to the whole

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26

Iterative Development Process

requires refinement and revision based on feedback, testing, or reflection, and may require revisiting earlier phases

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27

Plagiarism

use of material created by someone else without permission and presented as one's own

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28

Program Specification

describes how a program functions and may include requirements or a description of user interactions that a program must provide

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29

Syntax Error

mistake in the program where the rules of the programming language are not followed

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30

Software

program or a collection of programs

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31

Citizen Science

scientific research conducted in whole or part by distributed individuals, many of whom may not be scientists, who contribute relevant data to research using their own computing devices

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32

Cleaning Data

process that makes the data uniform without changing its meaning (e.g. replacing all equivalent abbreviations, spellings, and capitalizations with the same word)

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33

Correlation

relationship between two pieces of data

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34

Crowdsourcing

obtaining input or information from a large number of people via the Internet.

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35

Information

collection of facts and patterns extracted from data

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36

Data bias

data that does not accurately reflect the full population or phenomenon being studied

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37

Data filtering

choosing a smaller subset of a data set to use for analysis, for example by eliminating / keeping only certain rows in a table

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38

Computing Innovation

includes a program as an integral part of its function. Can be physical, non-physical computing software, or non-physical computing concepts

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39

Personally Identifiable Information (PII)

information about an individual that identifies, links, relates, or describes them

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40

Phishing

technique that attempts to trick a user into providing personal information

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41

Keylogging

program to record every keystroke made by a computer user in order to gain fraudulent access to passwords and other confidential information

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42

Malware

software intended to damage a computing system or to take partial control over its operation

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43

Rogue Access Point

wireless access point that gives unauthorized access to secure networks.

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44

Encryption

encoding messages to keep them secret, so only "authorized" parties can read it

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45

Decryption

taking a secret message and reproducing the original plain text (reverses encryption)

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46

Symmetric Key Encryption

involves one key for both encryption and decryption

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47

Public Key Encryption

pairs a public key for encryption and a private key for decryption. The sender does not need the receiver's private key to encrypt a message, but the receiver's private key is required to decrypt the message

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48

Computing Innovation

includes a program as an integral part of its function. Can be physical (e.g. self-driving car), non-physical computing software (e.g. picture editing software), or non-physical computing concepts (e.g., e-commerce).

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49

Personally Identifiable Information (PII)

information about an individual that identifies, links, relates, or describes them.

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50

Freeware

software that can be acquired at no monetary cost, so users should be wary it does not contain malicious code

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51

Multi-factor Authentication

requires at least two steps to unlock protected information; each step adds a new layer of security that must be broken to gain unauthorized access

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52

Strong Password

something that is easy for a user to remember but would be difficult for someone else to guess based on knowledge of that user

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53

Virus

malicious program that can copy itself and gain access to a computer in an unauthorized way - often attach themselves to legitimate programs and start running independently on a computer

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54

Expression

combination of operators, values, and or procedure calls that evaluates to a single value

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55

Assignment Operator

allows a program to change the value represented by a variable

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56

Variable

named reference to a value that can be used repeatedly throughout a program

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57

Boolean Value

data type that is either true or false

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58

Function

named group of programming instructions, and also referred to as a "procedure"

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59

Function Call

command that executes the code within a function

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60

Arithmetic Operators

addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and modulus operators (+, -, *, /, %)

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61

Boolean Expression

evaluates to either true or false

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62

Concatenation

joins together two or more strings end-to-end to make a new string

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63

Conditional Statement

affect the sequential flow of control by executing different statements based on the value of a Boolean expression.

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64

Evaluate

producing a single value from an expression

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65

Logical Operators

used in evaluating Boolean expressions (NOT, AND, OR, !, &&, ||)

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66

Procedure

named group of programming instructions that may have parameters and return values

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67

Relational / Comparison Operators

used to test the relationship between two expressions (=, ≠, >, <, ≥, and ≤)

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68

Selection

determines which parts of an algorithm are executed based on a condition being true or false

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69

String

ordered sequence of characters

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70

Computing Device

machine that can run a program, including computers, tablets, servers, routers, and smart sensors

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71

Computing System

group of computing devices and programs working together for a common purpose

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72

Computing Network

group of interconnected computing devices capable of sending or receiving data

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73

Path

series of connections between computing devices on a network starting with a sender and ending with a receiver.

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74

Bandwidth

maximum amount of data that can be sent in a fixed amount of time (usually measured in bits per second)

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75

Protocol

agreed-upon set of rules that specify the behavior of some system

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76

IP Address

unique number assigned to each device on the Internet

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77

Internet Protocol (IP)

protocol for sending data across the Internet that assigns unique numbers (IP addresses) to each connected device

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78

Router

type of computer that forwards data across a network

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79

Redundancy

inclusion of extra components so that a system can continue to work even if individual components fail

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80

Fault Tolerant

can continue to function even in the event of individual component failures

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81

HTTP (HyperTest Transfer Protocol)

protocol used for transmitting web pages over the Internet

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82

Internet

computer network consisting of interconnected networks that use standardized, open (nonproprietary) communication protocols

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83

Packet

chunk of data sent over a network that may arrive at the destination in order, out-of-order, or not at all

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84

Packet Metadata

helps route packets through the network and reassemble the original message

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85

Routing

finding a path from sender to receiver

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86

UDP

A protocol used on the internet for fast transmission of information but with minimal error checking

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87

World Wide Web

a system of linked pages, programs, and files.

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88

Router

A type of computer that forwards data across a network

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89

Certificate authority

issue digital certificates that validate the ownership of encryption keys used in secure communications and are based on a trust model

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90

Digital Divide

differing access to computing devices and the Internet, based on socioeconomic, geographic, or demographic characteristics

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91

Bit

the single unit of information in a computer, typically represented as a 0 or 1

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92

Byte

8 bits

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93

Overflow Error

error from attempting to represent a number that is too large

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94

Round-off Error

error from attempting to represent a number that is too precise

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95

Analog Data

values that change continuously, or smoothly, over time

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96

Digital Data

values that change discretely through a finite set of possible values

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97

Sampling

creating a digital representation of analog data by measuring the analog data at regular intervals called samples

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98

Lossless Compression

reducing the number of bits needed to represent something without losing any information. This process is reversible

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99

Lossy Compression

reducing the number of bits needed to represent something in which some information is lost or thrown away. This process is not reversible

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100

Binary

way of representing information using only two options (0 & 1)

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