Physiology week 1

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chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

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115 Terms

1

chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

levels of structural organization

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maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth

necessary life functions

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Multicellular

Interdependence of body cells: Humans are ________________

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Digestive system

Breakdown nutrients and eliminate unabsorbed matter

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Respiratory system

Take in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide

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Cardiovascular system

Blood distributes oxygen/nutrients to cells and delivers carbon dioxide/wastes to disposal organs

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Integumentary system

Protects body from external environment

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Urinary system

Eliminates nitrogenous wastes and excess ions

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Skeletal system

Protects, supports body organs, and provides a framework for muscle to cause movement

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Muscular system

allows locomotion, maintains posture, produces heat

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Nervous system

fast-acting control system of the body; responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands

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Endocrine system

Glands that secrete hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, and metabolism

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Lymphatic system/ immunity

Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood; disposes of debris; houses white blood cells

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Nutrients, oxygen, water, normal body temperature, & appropriate atmospheric pressure

survival needs

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Homeostasis

"Staying the same" maintenance of relatively stable conditions

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Negative feedback loops

Maintains homeostasis and is more stable ; more common

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Positive feedback loops

Away from homeostasis and more unstable; exaggerates original stimulus;“call of arms”

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Steps of negative feedback loop

stimulus, receptor, control center, effector, response

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Afferent pathway of negative feedback loops

"Approach" control center; sensory nerves; toward central nervous system

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Efferent pathway of negative feedback loops

"Exit" control center; motor nerves; away from central nervous system

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homeostatic imbalance

a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease

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Dorsal and ventral body cavity

Two major body cavities

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Dorsal body cavity

Protects nervous system; has two subdivisions: cranial & vertebral

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Cranial cavity

encases the brain

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Vertebral cavity

encases spinal cord

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Ventral body cavity

houses internal organs; has two subdivisions: thoracic & abdominopelvic cavity

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Thoracic cavity

contains heart and lungs; subdivision: two pleural cavities & mediastinum

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Abdominopelvic cavity

contains both the abdominal and pelvic cavities

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Abdominal cavity

Contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver

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Pelvic cavity

Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

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Serous membrane

Thin, double-layered membrane separated by serous fluid

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Parietal serosa

Lines internal body cavity walls

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Visceral serosa

Covers internal organs

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right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant

abdominopelvic quadrants

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Hypochondriac (left and right), epigastric, lumbar (left and right), umbilical, iliac (left and right), & hypogastric regions

9 abdominopelvic regions

<p>9 abdominopelvic regions</p>
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Matter

anything that has mass and occupies space

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Weight

Pull of gravity on matter

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Solid, liquid, and gas

3 states of matter

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Solid

Type of matter: Definite shape and volume

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Liquid

Type of matter: Changeable shape; definite volume

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Gas

Type of matter: Changeable shape and volume

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Energy

Capacity to do work or put matter into motion

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Kinetic and potential energy

Two basic types of energy

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Kinetic energy

Energy in action

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potential energy

Stored or inactive energy

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Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

major elements of the human body; 96.1%

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Atoms

Building blocks for each element

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Nucleus and electron cloud

2 regions of an atom

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Protons

Positively charged particles

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Neutrons

No charge particles

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Electrons

Negatively charged particles

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Molecule

Two or more atoms boned together

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Compound

A molecule that contains at least two different elements

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Mixtures

two or more components physically intermixed

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Solutions, colloids, suspensions

3 types of mixtures

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Solutions

A homogenous mixture meaning same composition throughout; salt water

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Solvent

Substance present in the greatest amount

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Solute

Present in smaller amounts

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Colloids

Large solute particles do not settle out; jello

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Suspension

Large, visible solutes that settle out; blood

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Chemical bonds

energy relationships between electrons of reacting atoms

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Octet rule (rule of 8's)

Except for the first shell, atoms interact to have 8 electrons in their valence shell

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Ionic bonds

Occur when one atom gains one or more electrons from another atom loosing the electrons; Weak bond

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Anion

A negatively charged ion

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Cation

A positively charged ion

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Covalent bonds

Formed by sharing two pairs or more valence shell electrons; strongest bond

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Single bond

A pair of shared electrons

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Double bond

two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms

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Triple bond

three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms

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nonpolar covalent bond

a covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally by the two atoms

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Polar covalent bond

One or more atoms, sharing the electrons in a molecule, has a stronger pull for electrons result in having a more negative charge; water molecule

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Hydrogen bonds

Very weak bonds; occurs when a hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to the electrostatic atom in another molecule

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Chemical reactions

occur when chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken

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Reactants and products

Two parts of a chemical reaction

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Reactants

Number and kind of reacting substances

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Products

Number and kind of ending substances

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Synthesis reactions

Building up reactions; anabolic reactions; bond formation; reactants are smaller and products are larger; methane

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Decomposition reactions

molecules are broken down into smaller molecules or atoms; breaking of bonds; catabolic reactions

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Exchange reactions

Displacement reactions; bonds made and broken

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Biochemistry

Study of chemical composition and reactions of living matter

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Organic and inorganic

2 groups of chemical compounds

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Organic

Contains carbon

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Inorganic

Does not contain carbon

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Salts

Ionic compounds that dissociate into ions in water

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Acids and bases

Both are electrolytes (Ionize and dissociate in water)

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Acids

Proton donors, release hydrogen ions in solution

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Bases

proton acceptors (take up H+ from solution)

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7 pH

neutral on the pH scale

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Carbohydrates

the starches and sugars present in foods

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Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides

3 types of carbohydrates

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Monosaccharides

single sugar molecule

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Disaccharides

Two sugar molecules; large enough so cannot pass through cell membranes

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Polysaccharides

many sugars molecules; not very soluble

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Functions of Carbohydrates

Major source of cellular energy and structural molecules

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Lipids

contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and sometimes phosphorous; insolvable in water

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Triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, and eicosanoids

main types of lipids

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Triglycerides

one glycerol and three fatty acid tails

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Saturated fatty acids

Type of fatty acids: Single covalently boned carbon atoms, holds maximum hydrogen atoms; butter

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Unsaturated fatty acids

Type of fatty acids: One or more double bonds between carbon atoms, fewer hydrogen atoms; olive oil

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Trans fats

Type of fat: Oils made into solids by adding hydrogen atoms where double bonds occur; elevated risk of heart disease

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