Novel Psychoactive Substances

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designer drug is a drug that is

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1

designer drug is a drug that is

created to be only slightly different from an illegal drug so that it will not be considered illegal

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2

Novel psychoactive substances is

a new narcotic or psychotropic drug that is not controlled by the UN drug conventions but which may pose a public health threat

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3

legal high is a substance with

stimulant or mood-altering properties whose sale or use is not banned by current legislation regarding the misuse of drugs

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4

designer drugs do 2 things

  1. modifying chemical structure

  2. finding drugs with similar effects

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5

the cycle of drug discovery and law enforcement

  1. new substance emerges

  2. increase in prevalence

  3. DEA issues scheduling notice

  4. substance is controlled, decrease in use

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6

Data for NPS

  1. self reported data

  2. clinical toxicology

  3. animal studies

  4. forensic data (PM tox, DUI tox, drug samples)

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7

synthetic cathinones grew in popularity in

2010

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8

khat’s plant name and what it looks like

catha edulis, flowering shrub

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9

khat contains

cathinone and cathine

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10

Khat has effects similar to __ that include __

amphetamine, euphoria, inc alertness, inc energy, HTN, cardiac arrhythmias

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11

Kat’s ingestion-- can be

sprinkled onto foods, chewed like tobacco then retained in the cheek to release the drug

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12

Cathinone is much __ potent than __

more, cathine

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13

dried khat leaves can be made into a

tea or chewable paste

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14

steet names for khat

Qat, Kat, Chat, Miraa, Quaadka

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15

Cathinone is schedule

1

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16

Cathine is schedule

4

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17

Structure of cathinone

knowt flashcard image
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18

structure of cathine

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19

Khat lacks sufficient macroscopic and microscopic characteristics for __

botanical identification

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20

Khat vegetation can require an

organic neutral/organic base extraction to extract out active ingredients

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21

methcathinone is synthesized by

the oxidation of pseudoephedrine or ephedrine in 1957 by Parke-Davis for pharmacological purposes

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22

methcathinone administration is mainly through

insufflation, can also be smoked or dissolved in water and injected

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23

highest use of methcathinone was seen in __ but has been replaced by …

the early 1990s, meth

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24

people usually synthesize new cathinones by adding

alkyl side chains of varying lengths

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25

Effects of methcathinone

nosebleeds, paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, suicidal thoughts, sweating, panic attacks, seizures, nausea and vomitting, agitation, insomnia, rapid heart rate (heart attack, stroke, chest pains), irritability, dizziness, depression

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26

synthetic cathinones emerged in europe in the , first seen in the __

mid 2000s, late 2000s

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27

synthetic cathinones are falsely marketed as

plant food, bath salts, insect repellant in smoke shops and gas stations

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28

examples of synthetic cathinones

butylone, dimethylone, ethylone, eutylone, pentylone

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29

trends in syn cathinone usage

number JUMPED in 2010-2011, and then it plataued in October 2011 after a notice of intent was issued

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30

piperazines have ___ effects similar to

stimulant/hallucinogenic, phenethylamines

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31

piperazines are __ potent than phenethylamines

less

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32

inc of use of piperazines in the

2000s

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33

Piperazines are marketed as

legal ecstasy, legal E, legal X

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34

Piperazines cause an

increase in heart rate, euphoria, seizures, and anxiety

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35

structure of piperazine

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36

N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) is a __ analog

phenylpiperazine

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37

N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) was studied as a possible __ in the 1970s

antidepressant

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38

N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) is commonly used

with other piperazines for ecstasy like effects

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39

schedule of

N-benzylpiperazine (BZP)

1, since 2002

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40

1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP) is a

substituted piperazine derivative

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41

Effects of TFMPP

anxiolytic, antiaggressive locomotor inhibition, hyperthermia, respiratory depression

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42

TFMPP has __ effects

MDMA-like

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43

TFMPP is often seen in combo with

BZP

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44

scheudle of TFMPP

not scheduled

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45

route of administration for synthetic cathinones and piperazines

smoked or insufflated

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46

oral dose of synthetic cathinones and piperazines

20 to 200 mg

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47

Effects of synthetic cathinones and piperazines last for

6 to 8 hours

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48

2C compounds are

2,5-dimethoxy substituted phenethylamines

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49

2C compounds were synthesized by

Alexander Shulgin in the 1970s and 80s

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50

structure of TFMPP

knowt flashcard image
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51

structure of BZP

knowt flashcard image
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52

2C compounds

hallucinogenic effects: euphoria, sharper senses

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53

2C compounds are used as a

club drug in rave culture and party scene by young peeps

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54

how do people administer 2C compounds

oral or insufflation

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55

NBOMes differ from 2C compounds by

the addition of a 2-methoxybenzyl group on the nitrogren

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56

NBOMes became popular in

2010-2011

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57

2C compounds add onto the

3 and 4 positions

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58

NBOMes are the legal alternative to

LSD

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59

NBOMes bind to

serotonin receptors

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60

DEA scheduled three

NBOMes in 2013--

C, B, and I

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61

routes of administration for

NBOMes

blotter paper, injection, IV, IM, and IN

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62

No reports of NBOMes before

June 2011

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63

Flubromazolam is sold as a

legal high bc its not scheduled

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64

Etizolam was the ___ common

most

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65

Flubromazolam has __ effects

tranquilizing, anxiolytic, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant

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66

Flubromazolam when abused can result in

coma or severe cardiorespiratory failure

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67

Etizolam is not approved by the FDA but is approved for medical use in

Italy and Japan

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68

Etizolam has __ effects

tranquilizing, anxiolytic, hypnotic effects, and is a muscle relaxant

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69

Side effects of etizolam

eye twitching, skin lesions

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70

3 examples of designer steroids

methasterole, prostanozol, and tetrahydrogenistrinone

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71

Steroids were easy to schedule because they just scheduled

anything that was anabolic

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72

Synthetic Cathinone trend

Came about in 2010/2011.

Methylone was most popular. Then it was replaced by ethylone. Then alpha-PVP. Then dibutylone.

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73

Methylone was ______ 2011, then __ in 2013

temporarily scheduled, permanently scheduled

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74

butylone was scheduled in

2014

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75

structure of ethylone

knowt flashcard image
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76

structure of butylone

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77

in 2018, __ was the most common synthetic cathinone

n-ethylpentylone

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78

in 2021, __ was the most common synth cathinone

eutylone

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79

NBOMes were most popular in and then trailed off by

2013, 2016

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80

Screening for Syn Cath

GC-FID, UV spec, and color tests

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81

Synth Cath confirmatory analysis

GC-MS, LC-MS, and FTIR

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82

Challenges with Synth Cath

  1. lack of reference materials

  2. crystal polymorphism (solid can exhibit different crystalline structures)

  3. isomers (should use FTIR)

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83

Marquis turns __ with __

yellow, syn cath

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84

CoSCN (Cobalt thiocyanate) turns __ with __

blue, syn cath

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85

crystal polymorphism is when

solid-state matter where material can exhibit different crystalline structures which although processing the same chemical composition may manifest different properties

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86

a compound that exhibits crystal polymorphism

ethylone hydrochloride

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87

isomers should be analyzed via __

GC because they’ll have dif retention times

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88

2 isomers that need to be differentiated are __ because …

eutylone and pentalone, eutylone is schedule III and pentalone is not scheduled

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89

Microcrystalline test for BZP

platinic bromide creates rectangles with indented ends

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90

Nitroprusside with BZP

turns blue

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91

cobalt thiocyanate with BZP

no reaction

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92

marquis reaction with BZP

no reaction

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93

TFMPP with platinic bromide

oils, then clusters of rods from center core (overgrown bowties)

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94

2C-B with Marquis

green

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95

2C-B with Mecke

green to yellow to blue

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96

2C-I with marquis

blue

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97

2C-I with Mecke

brown-black

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98

2C-T-2 with marquis

pale orange

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99

2C-T-2 with Mecke

orange-red-purple

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100

2C compounds all have very different

mass specs

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