Heart anatomy

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Where does the heart lie?

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1

Where does the heart lie?

In the middle mediastinum.

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2

What surrounds the heart?

A fibroserous sac called Pericardium.

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3

How is the pericardium differentiated?

Into an outer fibrous layer (fibrous pericardium) and an inner serous sac (serous pericardium) consisting of parietal and visceral layers.

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4

What are the surfaces of the heart?

Apex, Sterno-costal (anterior surface), Base (posterior surface), Diaphragmatic (inferior surface).

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5

How is the shape of the heart described?

Somewhat pyramidal.

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6

How many chambers does the heart consist of?

4 chambers - 2 atria (right and left) & 2 ventricles (right and left).

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7

How is the apex of the heart directed?

Downwards, forwards, and to the left.

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8

What forms the apex of the heart?

Left ventricle.

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9

At what level does the apex of the heart lie?

Left 5th intercostal space, 3.5 inches from the midline.

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10

Why is the base of the heart called the base?

Because the heart is pyramid-shaped, and the base lies opposite the apex.

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11

On what surface does the heart rest?

The heart rests on its diaphragmatic (inferior) surface, not on its base.

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12

What forms the Sterno-costal surface (anterior surface) of the heart?

Mainly formed by the right atrium and the right ventricle.

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13

How is the surface divided by the coronary groove?

Divided into an atrial part, formed mainly by the right atrium, and a ventricular part. The right 2/3 is formed by the right ventricle, while the left 1/3 is formed by the left ventricle.

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14

What separates the right and left ventricles on the sterno-costal surface?

Anterior interventricular groove, which lodges the Anterior interventricular artery (branch of the left coronary) and the Great cardiac vein.

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15

What artery is lodged in the Anterior interventricular groove?

Anterior interventricular artery (branch of the left coronary).

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16

What vein is lodged in the Anterior interventricular groove?

Great cardiac vein.

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17

What does the coronary groove lodge?

Right coronary artery.

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18

What is another term for groove?

Sulcus.

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19

What forms the diaphragmatic surface of the heart?

Formed by the two ventricles, mainly the left ventricle (left 1/3).

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20

How is the diaphragmatic surface described?

Slightly concave as it rests on the diaphragm.

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21

In what direction is the diaphragmatic surface directed?

Inferiorly and backward.

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22

What separates the diaphragmatic surface from the base of the heart?

Posterior part of the coronary sulcus.

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23

What groove separates the two ventricles on the diaphragmatic surface?

Posterior interventricular groove.

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24

What structures are lodged in the posterior interventricular groove?

Posterior interventricular artery, Middle cardiac vein.

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25

What artery is lodged in the posterior interventricular groove?

Posterior interventricular artery.

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26

What vein is lodged in the posterior interventricular groove?

Middle cardiac vein.

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27

What forms the base of the heart?

Formed by the two atria, mainly the left atrium, into which open 4 pulmonary veins.

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28

In what direction is the base of the heart directed?

Backwards.

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29

What is the location of the base of the heart?

Opposite middle thoracic vertebrae (5-7).

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30

What structures separate the base of the heart from the vertebral column?

Descending aorta, esophagus, and oblique sinus of the pericardium.

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31

What bounds the base of the heart inferiorly?

Posterior part of the coronary sulcus, which lodges the coronary sinus.

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32

What conceals the upper border of the heart?

Ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk.

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33

What forms the left border of the heart?

Mainly formed by the left ventricle + auricle of the left atrium.

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34

What forms the right border of the heart?

Formed by the right atrium.

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35

What forms the lower border of the heart?

Mainly formed by the right ventricle + apical part of the left ventricle.

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36

How is the heart divided into chambers?

By vertical septa into four chambers: Left and right atria, and left and right ventricles.

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37

What are the four chambers of the heart?

Left atrium, right atrium, left ventricle, and right ventricle.

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38

How is the right atrium positioned relative to the left atrium?

Anterior to the left atrium.

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39

How is the right ventricle positioned relative to the left ventricle?

Anterior to the left ventricle.

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40

What are the components of the right atrium?

Main cavity and a small outpouching called the auricle.

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41

What does the auricle of the right atrium resemble?

An upward protrusion resembling an ear.

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42

Where is the vertical groove located on the outside of the right atrium?

At the junction between the right atrium and the right auricle.

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43

What is the name of the vertical groove at the junction of the right atrium and the right auricle?

Sulcus terminalis.

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44

What does the sulcus terminalis form on the inside of the right atrium?

A ridge called the Crista terminalis.

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45

What divides the right atrium?

Crista terminalis.

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46

How is the anterior part of the right atrium characterized?

Rough and trabeculated by bundles of muscle fibers, known as musculi pectinati.

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47

Describe the posterior part of the right atrium.

Smooth, and it is referred to as the sinus venarum.

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48

What is found in the interatrial septum of the right atrium?

An oval depression called fossa ovalis.

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49

What is the margin of the fossa ovalis called?

Anulus ovalis.

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50

Through which valve does blood leave the right atrium and enter the right ventricle?

Tricuspid valve.

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51

What are the openings in the right atrium?

  1. Superior Vena Cava (SVC) - has no valve. 2. Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) - guarded by a valve. 3. Coronary sinus - has a well-defined valve. 4. Right atrioventricular orifice - lies anterior to the opening of the coronary sinus, surrounded by a fibrous ring that gives attachment to the tricuspid valve. 5. Small orifices of small veins.

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52

Which opening in the right atrium has no valve?

Superior Vena Cava (SVC).

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53

Which opening in the right atrium is guarded by a valve?

Inferior Vena Cava (IVC).

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54

Which opening in the right atrium has a well-defined valve?

Coronary sinus.

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55

Where is the right atrioventricular orifice located?

Anterior to the opening of the coronary sinus, surrounded by a fibrous ring that gives attachment to the tricuspid valve.

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56

How does the right ventricle communicate with the right atrium?

Through the atrioventricular orifice.

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57

How does the right ventricle communicate with the pulmonary trunk?

Through the pulmonary orifice.

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58

How does the thickness of the right ventricle wall compare to that of the left ventricle?

Thinner than the wall of the left ventricle.

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59

What structures are present in the wall of the right ventricle?

Projections called trabeculae carneae.

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60

Through what orifice does the right ventricle communicate with the right atrium?

Right atrioventricular orifice.

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61

Through what orifice does the right ventricle communicate with the pulmonary trunk?

Pulmonary orifice.

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62

What structures arise from the walls of the right ventricle and are called?

Large projections called papillary muscles.

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63

Name the three papillary muscles in the right ventricle.

  1. Anterior papillary muscle, 2. Posterior papillary muscle, 3. Septal papillary muscle.

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64

What connects each papillary muscle to the cusps of the tricuspid valve?

Chordae tendineae.

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65

Through which orifice does blood leave the right ventricle to the pulmonary trunk?

Pulmonary orifice.

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66

How is the wall of the infundibulum characterized?

Smooth and contains no trabeculae.

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67

What connects the interventricular septum to the anterior papillary muscle?

A muscular band called moderator band.

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68

What is the width of the right atrioventricular (tricuspid) orifice?

About one inch wide, admitting tips of 3 fingers.

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69

What guards the right atrioventricular orifice?

A fibrous ring that gives attachment to the cusps of the tricuspid valve.

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70

How many cusps does the tricuspid valve have?

3 cusps (anterior, posterior, septal or medial).

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71

How are the atrial surfaces of the tricuspid valve cusps characterized?

Smooth.

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72

What do the ventricular surfaces of the tricuspid valve cusps give attachment to?

Chordae tendineae.

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73

What surrounds the pulmonary orifice?

A fibrous ring that gives attachment to the pulmonary valve.

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74

How many semilunar cusps does the pulmonary valve have?

3 cusps (2 anterior and 1 posterior).

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75

How are the cusps of the pulmonary valve shaped?

Concave superiorly and convex inferiorly.

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76

Through what orifice does the left atrium communicate with the left ventricle?

Atrioventricular orifice.

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77

What part of the heart does the left atrium form?

Greater part of the base of the heart.

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78

How is the wall of the left atrium characterized?

Smooth, except for small musculi pectinati in the left auricle.

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79

How many pulmonary veins does the left atrium receive?

4 pulmonary veins.

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80

Do the pulmonary veins have valves?

No, they have no valves.

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81

Through which orifice does the left atrium send blood to the left ventricle?

Left atrioventricular orifice.

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82

What guards the left atrioventricular orifice?

Mitral valve (bicuspid valve).

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83

How does the thickness of the left ventricle wall compare to that of the right ventricle?

Thicker than that of the right ventricle.

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84

From where does the left ventricle receive blood?

From the left atrium through the left atrioventricular orifice, which is guarded by the mitral (bicuspid) valve.

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85

What is found in the wall of the left ventricle?

Trabeculae carneae.

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86

How many large papillary muscles are found in the left ventricle?

2 (anterior and posterior).

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87

To what are the papillary muscles attached by chordae tendinae?

Cusps of the mitral valve.

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88

Through which orifice does blood leave the left ventricle?

Aortic orifice.

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89

What is the part of the left ventricle leading to the ascending aorta called?

Aortic vestibule.

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90

How is the wall of the aortic vestibule characterized?

Fibrous and smooth.

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91

How does the size of the left atrioventricular (mitral) orifice compare to the right?

Smaller than the right, admitting only the tips of 2 fingers.

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92

What guards the left atrioventricular orifice?

Mitral valve.

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93

What surrounds the left atrioventricular orifice and gives attachment to the cusps of the mitral valve?

A fibrous ring.

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94

How many cusps does the mitral valve have?

2 cusps - anterior cusp and posterior cusp.

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95

Where does the anterior cusp of the mitral valve lie?

Anteriorly and to the right.

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96

Where does the posterior cusp of the mitral valve lie?

Posteriorly and to the left.

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97

How are the atrial surfaces of the mitral valve cusps characterized?

Smooth.

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98

To what are the ventricular surfaces of the mitral valve cusps attached?

Chordae tendineae.

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99

What surrounds the aortic orifice and gives attachment to the cusps of the aortic valve?

A fibrous ring.

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100

How many cusps does the aortic valve have?

3 semilunar cusps.

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