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101 Terms

1

software requirement

establishing the needs of stakeholders that are to be solved by software

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requirement

a condition or capability needed by the user to solve a problem

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requirement

software capability that must be met or possessed by a system

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functional requirement

specify something that the application or system should do

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functional requirement

a behavior of the system that takes input and provides output

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performance requirement

software requirements can also be a non-functional, it can be a

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non-functional requirements

define the quality attributes of a software system, describe how the system should be

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non-functional requirements

ensure the performance, maintainability, usability, and effectiveness of the entire system

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  1. Business Requirements

  2. Architectural and Design Requirements

  3. System and Integration Requirements

3 types of requirements

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business requirements

known as stakeholder requirements specifications

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business requirements

describe the characteristics of the proposed system

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architectural and design requirements

more detailed and determines the overall design required to implement the business requirements.

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system and integration requirements

  1. break-down the steps needed to meet the business requirements

  2. detailed description of each and every requirement

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requirement analysis

analyzing customers’ needs to obtain a definition of the software requirements

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requirement analysis

helps organizations to determine the actual needs of stakeholders and enables the development team to communicate with the stakeholders

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requirement analysis

is the process of defining user expectations for a new software being built or modified

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requirement engineering

requirement analysis is also known as

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  1. Eliciting requirements

  2. Analyzing requirements

  3. Requirements modeling

  4. Review and retrospective

the requirements analysis process involves the following steps

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eliciting requirements

communicating with the customers to determine what their requirements are

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requirements gathering

eliciting requirements is sometimes also called

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analyzing requirements

determine the quality of the requirements

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requirements modeling

requirements are usually documented in different formats such as use cases, user stories, natural-language documents, or process specifications.

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review and retrospective

conducted to reflect on the previous iterations of requirements gathering in a bid to make improvements in the process going forward

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review and retrospective

team members reflect on what happened in the iteration and identify actions for improvement going forward

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  1. stakeholder issues

  2. engineer/developer issues

2 requirement analysis issues

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requirement analysis techniques

used to map the business workflow

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business process modeling notation (BPMN)

is similar to creating process flowcharts to simplify understanding the business process

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business process modeling notation (BPMN)

widely popular as a process improvement methodology

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UML (Unified Modeling Language)

consists of an integrated set of diagrams that document the artifacts of a software system

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UML (Unified Modeling Language)

useful technique while creating object-oriented software

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UML (Unified Modeling Language)

validating the architectural design

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flowchart technique

sequential flow and control logic of a set of activities that are related.

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flowchart

are in different formats such as linear, cross-functional, and top-down used to representdata flows, system interactions

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advantage of using flowchart

  1. easy to read and write for both the technical and non-technical team members

  2. show the parallel process by function, critical attributes of a process

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data flow diagram

visually represent systems and processes that are complex and difficult to describe in text

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data flow diagram

represent the flow of information through a process or a system and sub process through which the data moves

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data flow diagram

describes various entities and their relationships with the help of standardized notations and symbols

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role activity diagrams (RAD)

is a role-oriented process model that represents role-activity diagrams

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role activity diagrams (RAD)

are a high-level view that captures the dynamics and role structure of an organization

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roles

are used to grouping together activities into units of responsibilities

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activities

are the basic parts of a role

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activity

may be either carried out in isolation or it may require coordination with other activities within the role

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gantt charts

visual representation of tasks that are scheduled along with the timelines

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gantt charts

help to know what is scheduled to be completed by which date. The start and end dates of all the tasks in the project can be seen in a single view.

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IDEF (integrated definition for function modeling)

child and parent systems with the help of a box

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IDEF (integrated definition for function modeling)

provides a blueprint to gain an understanding of an organization’s system

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workflow technique

visual diagram that represent one or more business processes

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workflow technique

used by BA for taking notes during requirements elicitation

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  1. Information Gathering

  2. Workflow Modeling

  3. Business process Modeling

  4. Implementation, Verification & Execution

workflow technique process comprises of four stages:

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object oriented methods

uses object oriented paradigm and modeling language for designing a system

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object oriented methods

emphasis on finding and describing the object in the problem domain

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object oriented methods

method is applicable to the system which has dynamic requirements. It is a process of deriving use cases, activity flow, and events flow for the system

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object oriented analysis

can be done through textual needs, communication with system stakeholder and vision document

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So, when the object receives a message, state changes through behavior

The object has a state, and state changes are represented by behavior

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gap analysis

is a technique that helps to analyze the gaps in the performance of a software application to determine whether the business requirements are met or not

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gap

denotes the difference between the present state and the target state

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need analysis, need assessment, or need-gap analysis

gap analysis is also known as

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  1. Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN)

  2. UML (Unified Modeling Language)

  3. Flowchart Technique

  4. Data Flow Diagram

  5. Role Activity Diagrams (RAD)

  6. Gantt Charts

  7. IDEF (Integrated Definition for Function Modeling)

  8. Workflow Technique

  9. Object Oriented Methods

  10. Gap Analysis

10 requirement analysis techniques that can be used for software development process

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Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN)

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UML (Unified Modeling Language)

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Flowchart Technique

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Data Flow Diagram

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Role Activity Diagrams (RAD)

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Gantt Charts

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IDEF (Integrated Definition for Function Modeling)

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Workflow Technique

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Object Oriented Methods

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Gap Analysis

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analysis model

Software engineers perform analysis modeling and create an _________________ to provide information of 'what' software should do instead of 'how' to fulfill the requirements in software

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analysis model

functions that software should perform, behavior it should exhibit, and constraints that are applied on the software

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analysis model

determines the relationship of one component with other components. The clear and complete requirements specified in the __________ help the software development team to develop the software according to those requirements

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analysis model

operates as a link between the 'system description' and the 'design model'

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system description

provides information about the entire functionality of the system, which is achieved by implementing the software, hardware and data

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  1. Scenario based element

  2. Class based elements

  3. Behavioral elements

  4. Flow oriented elements

analysis model is organized into four elements namely:

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scenario based element

represents the system user point of view

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scenario based element

use case diagram, user stories are

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class based elements

the object of this type of element manipulated by the system. It defines the object, attributes and relationship

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class based elements

class diagram, collaboration diagram are

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behavioral elements

represent state of the system and how it is changed by the external events

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behavioral elements

sequenced diagram, state diagram are

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flow oriented elements

an information flows through a computer-based system it gets transformed

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flow oriented elements

data flow diagram, control flow diagram are

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structured analysis

top-down approach, which focuses on refining the problem with the help of functions performed in the problem domain

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DFD (Data-Flow Diagram)

also known as bubble chart and work flow diagram

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DFD (Data-Flow Diagram)

depicts data sources, data sinks, data storage and processes performed on data as nodes and logical flow of data as links between the nodes

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data dictionary

is a repository that stores description of data objects to be used by the software

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data dictionary

stores an organized collection of information about data and their relationships, data-flows, data types, data stores, processes and so on

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data dictionary

comprises the source of data, which are data objects and entities

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object-oriented modeling

used to describe system requirements using prototypes

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object-oriented modeling

analyzes the problem domain and then partitions the problem with the help of objects

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object-oriented modeling

defines a system as a set of objects, which interact with each other by the services they provide

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object modelling

develops the static structure of the software system in terms of objects

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dynamic modelling

a way of describing how an individual object responds to events

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functional modelling

is the final component of object-oriented analysis

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functional model

shows the processes that are performed within an object and how the data changes as it moves between methods

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Structured Analysis/Structured Design (SASD) approach

is the traditional approach of software development based upon the waterfall model.

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Unified Modeling Language (UML)

is a representation of a software in terms of it's structure, behavior and interactions, before the actual coding process begins

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use-cases

are represented with the help of a use-case diagram, which depicts the relationships among actors and use cases within a system

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use case

is the primary form of system/software requirements for a new software program underdeveloped. It specify the expected behavior (what), and not the exact method of making it happen (how)

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