C4: Cell and mole bio

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DNA is located in

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131 Terms

1

DNA is located in

chromosomes

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2

What is a genome?

collective genetic information of an organism

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3

What nature of the gene was discovered in 1865?

discrete units of inheritance by Gregor Mendel

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4

What nature of the gene was discovered in the 1880s?

chromosomes

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5

what nature if the gene was discovered in 1903

homologous chromosomes

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6

what nature of the genes was discovered from 1909 to 1911?

Crossing over during Meiosis

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7

what nature of the gene was discovered from 1911 to 1913?

Genes are mapped in order along the length of chromosomes

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8

what nature of the gene was doscovered mfrom 1944 to 1952?

DNA as genetic material

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9

what nature of the gene was discovered during 1953?

DNA structure

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10

Mendel's work on garden peas became the foundation for:

genetics

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11

Why did mendel chose garden peas in his work?

they have clearly definable 2 alternative traits

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12

Mendel's experiment on his pea plants gave rise to:

Laws of Inheritance

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13

Characteristics of organisms are governed by units of inheritance called

genes

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14

What is an allele

2 forms of a gene that controls each trait

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15

what is a gamete?

reproductive cell containing one gne for each trait

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16

how many alleles are inherited?

2; 1 from each parent

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17

what are the 4 concepts of geen as a unit of inheritance?

  1. Characteristics of oraganisms are governed by units of inheritance 2. A reproductive cel called gametre contains one gene for each trait 3. 2 pairs of genes are segregated during gamete formation 4. Genes controlling different traits segregate independently of each other.

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18

How was chromosomes first discovered?

in dividing cells under the light microscope

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19

What happens to chromosomes during cell division?

they divide equally into two daughter cells

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20

Before cell divion, chromosomeese are

already doubled

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21

What is a homologous chromosomes?

one of the two pairs of chromatids that forms chromosomes

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22

what happens to the homologous chromosomes during meiosis?

they associate to form a BIVALENT; then separate into different cells

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23

to what concept in genes is the chromosmal behavior be correlated wityh

Mendelian Laws of Inheritance

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24

genes on the same chromosome do not:

assort independently

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25

the genes on the same chromosome are part of the same:

linkage group

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26

the locations of the traits Mendel observed are

part of the same linkage group

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27

Why is drosophilia used as a genetic tool?

they have 4 pairs of homologous chromosomes, they can mutate (from red eyes to white), easier to access and lays egg quickly, have shortwer life span

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28

Linkage between alleles on the same chromosme is

incomplete

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29

when can maternal and patrnal chromosomese can exchange pieces?

during crossing over or geentic recombination

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30

what is a homolog/ homologue?

gene inherited in two species from a common ancestor

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31

what is a chiasmata?

points where homologues are crossed

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32

percentage of recombination between a pair of genes is:

constant

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33

percentage of recombination between diffferent pair of genes can be

different

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34

Positions of genes along a chromosome can be

mapped

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35

what happens to the frequency of recombination when the distance increases?

frequency of recombination increases also

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36

what are polytene chromosomes?

these are single chromosome found in cells that can undergo in consecutive genome replicatipon without breaking the nuclear envelope

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37

how are polytene chromosomes formed?

when chromatids of diploid nuclei chromosomes duplicate successively during S-PHASE without segregation, the cable-like structure products are compacted to form one giant chromosome

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38

function of puffs in polytene chromosome

visualization of gene expresion

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39

siginifaincance of polytene chromosomes

observing specific band related to individual genes

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40

building block of DNA

nucleotide

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41

parts of a nuclotide

phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar, nitrogenous base

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42

two types of nitrogenous bases?

purine, pyrimindine

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43

Purine

Adenine Guanine

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44

Pyrimidine

Cytosine Thymine

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45

polarized structures of nucleotides have ends called

5' and 3'

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46

what links the sugar and phosphates in the DNA

3' , 5'- phosphodiester bonds

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47

Chargaff rules were established after

base composition analysis A=T and C=G

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48

What is the structure of DNA based on the Watson-Crick proposal

double helix

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49

DNA has ___ chains of nucleotides

two

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50

The two chains of DNA are

antiparallel

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51

what is the meaning of antiparallel?

run I opposite directions

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52

the sugar-phosphate background in DNA is located at the ___, while the bases are _____

outside of the molecule; inside the helix

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53

what holds the DNA chain at their bases?

hydrogen bonds

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54

the DNA molecular has __ and __ grooves

major and minor

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55

what is the major groove?

the oxygen molecule in the deoxyribose ring is always pointed up in the correct orientation 5' to 3'

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56

what is the minor groove?

the oxygen molecule in the deoxyribose ring is always pointed down in the correct orientation 5' to 3'

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57

the two chains in DNA are ___ to each other

complementary

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58

The 3 importance of the Watson-Crick proposal?

  1. storage of genetic information 2. reolication of inheritance 3. expresion of the genetic message

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59

what is supercoiling?

it is the coiling of the DNA in favor of many complex cell processes to take plaxce

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60

when the DNA is more compact than its relaxed counterpart, it is then considered to be

supercoiled

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61

an underwound DNA is ____ supercoiled while an overwound DNA is ___ supercoiled

negatively; positively

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62

an underwould molecule assumes a _____

negatively supercoiled conformation

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63

what does negative supercoiling does to the DNA in cell nucleus?

it makes the DNA fit

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64

what enxyme changes the DNA supercoiling?

topoisomerase

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65

function of type II topoisomerase?

change supercoiled state by CREATING A TRANSIENT BREAK IN ONE STRAND OF THE DUPLEX

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66

function of type I topoisomerase?

make atransient break in both ends of the DNA duplex

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67

what is denaturation in DNA

its ability to separate into two strands

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68

what is renaturation or reanneling?

it happens when a single-stranded DNA molecules reassocites

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69

some of the products of the discovery of renaturation?

development of nucleic acid hybridization

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70

what is nucleic acid hybridization?

complementary strands of nuclic acids from different sources can form hybrid molecules

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71

Three classes of DNA reannealing and their sequence in increasing Cot

Highly repeated, moderately repeated, Nonrepeated

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72

How many percent does highly repeated DNA sequences can represent the total DNA

1 to 10 %

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73

what is a satellite DNA

short sequences; tend to evolve rapidly

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74

what is a minisatellite DNA and its function

unstable; variable in population; basis of DNA fingerprinting

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75

process of DNA fingerprinting

Restriction endonucleases digest the DNA and DNA fragments are separated via gel electrophoresis

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76

what is microsatellite DNA and its functiom

shortest sequences in small clusters; detect genetic disorder

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77

what happenes during Fluorescent in situ hybridization

DNA probe that is hybridized into chromosomes are used to determine position of satellite sequences

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78

the process of Fluorescent in situ hybridization

  1. fluorescent probes are generated towards a specific DNA sequence 2. Probed hybridize with DNA 3. Fluorescent spots determines gene/DNA location

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79

what are the 2 types of moderately repeated DNA sequences

  1. repeated DNA sequences with coding functions 2. repeated DNA sequences without coding fucntions

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80

examples of repeated DNA sequence woth coding functions

genes for RIBSOSOMAL RNA and HISTONES

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81

what products does repeated dna sequence without coding functions have

none. They do not have any gene product

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82

repeated dna sequence without coding functions have 2 classes:

SINEs or LINEs

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83

what are trinucleotide repeats

they causes mutations in repeating unit of 3 nucleotides

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84

when trinucleotide repeats occur the mutant alleles are

highly unstable

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85

when trinucleotide repeats occur what happens to the number of repeating units

increase when the gene is passed from parent to offspring

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86

Type I diseases in expanision of trinucleotide repeats, which are all nuerodegeneratic disorders result from

expansion of CAG trinucleotides

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87

huntington's disease is caused by __ and from what gene

36 glutamine repeats in the huntingtin gene

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88

the expanded glutamine repeats in huntington's disease are toxic to

brain cell

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89

the type II diseases classified under the expansio of triucleotide sequence are present in

gene parts that do not code for an amino acid

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90

what is polyploidization

whole genome replication; occurs when offspring receive more than 2 pairs of chromosomes

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91

what is the function of the unequal crossing over of duplicated genes

generate changes in gene number

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92

gne duplication happens within?

a portion of a single chromosome

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93

how does gene duplication occur

unequal crossing over between misalogned homologous chromosomes

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94

gene duplication played a major role in

evolution of multigene families

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95

what genes are part of the globin genes?

myoglobin, hemoglobin, leghemoglobin

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96

how was globin genes derived

duplication, gene fusion, divergence

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97

what are pseudogenes

nonfunctional sequences that resembles globin genes

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98

what is transposition

genetic elements moves within a chromosome

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99

what are transposable elements

mobile elements that can move in the chromosome

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100

funciton of the enzyme tranposase

facilitate insertion of transposons to the target site

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