BSCI exam 2

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Hadean eon

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198 Terms

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Hadean eon

first ocean

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Archean eans

origin of life

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Proterozoic eon

first photosynthetic organisms; first eukaryotes

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Cambrian

explosion of diversity of multicellular forms

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ordovician

radiation of marine invertebrates, first land plants

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silurian

first vascular plants

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devonian

first seed bearing plants; first jawed fish; first arthropods

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carboniferous

large swamps of coal

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9

permian

giant insects and amphibians; diverse ray finned fish

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triassic

conifers dominant land plant; frog and reptile diversity

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jurassic

dinosaurs; pterosaurs and rayed finned fish diversity, first flowering plant

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cretaceous

flowering plant diversity, animals diversity on land sea

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tertiary

radiation of mammals; climates cool and grasslands increase

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quaternary

evolution of homo

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15

mesozoic era includes

triassic, jurassic, cretaceous

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16

Cenozoic era includes

tertiary, quaternary

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17

Paleozoic era includes

cambrian, ordovician, silurian, devonian, carboniferous, permian

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18

what eons are in the hanerozoic

Paleozoic, mesozoic, cenozoic

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19

alveolates

unicellular, key feature being alveoli, phototrophic lineages being dinoflagellates, secondary endosymbiosis, heterotrophic lineages are ciliates, and apicomplexans

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alveolates lineages

dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, ciliates

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stramenopiles

uni and multicellular, key feature: 2 unequal flagella, phototrophic is diatoms and brown algae, heterotrophic oomycetes, secondary endosymbiosis

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stramenopiles lineage

diatoms, oomycetes

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rhizarians

unicellular, key feature: produce shells, phototrophic some cercozoa, heterotrophic foraminifera, radiolarians, rest of cercozoa, secondary endosymbiosis

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rhizarian lineages

cercozoa, foraminifera, radiolarians

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excavates

unicellular, have flagella, phototrophic: euglenoids, heterotrophic: parabasilids, diplomonads, secondary endosymbiosis

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excavate lineages

euglenids, parabasilids, diplomonads

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plants

uni and mulitcellular, key feature: photosynthetic, phototrophic lineages: red and green algae, land plants, primary endosymbiosis

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28

amoebozoans

unicellular, key feature: amoeba like with pseudopods, heterotrophic: loboseans, plasmodial and cellular slime molds

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groups of plants

bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms

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bryophytes key groups

liverworts, mosses, hornworts

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all bryophytes have

stomata (except liverworts), need water for fertilization, gymnosperm

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pteridophytes key groups

club mosses, horsetails, ferns

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all pteridophytes have

stomata, need water for fertilization, and roots, sporophyte

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gymnosperm key groups

conifers, ginkgoes, cycads

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35

all gymnosperms have

stomata, tracheids and roots, pollen, seeds, sporophyte

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angiosperm key groups

flowering plants

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all angiosperms have

stomata, tracheids and roots, pollen, seeds, double fertilization, sporophyte

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38

key eukaryotic traits

flexible cell membrane (lost cell wall), complex cytoskeleton, nuclear membrane, digestive vacuoles, endosymbionts (mitochondria and chloroplast), sexual reproduction (mitosis and meosis)

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39

what are the 8 major groups of eukarya?

alveolates, stramenophiles, rhizarians, excavates, plantae, amoebozoans, fungi, animals

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40

which lineage of eukarya does not have nuclei?

excavates lineages: diplomonads and parabasalids

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41

2 hypotheses for the origin of mitochondira

late origin, excavates split off before the origin of mitochondria, early origin, mitochondria arose at beginning but lost in excavates

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42

What is proven through evidence?

single origin of mitochondria before excavates separate because genes found in nuclear genomes

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43

excavates are usually

anaerobes and are parasites

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44

how did secondary endosymbiosis occur:

green algae: transferred to the ancestor of euglenids and chlorarachniophytes

red algae: transferred to the ancestor of the chromalveolates

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45

ancestrally how did organisms replicate

binary fission

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46

steps for binary fission

replication of DNA from parent cell —> segregation of DNA —> cell splitting into 2

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47

in binary fission what is shared

plasmids which contains genes for antibiotic resistance or pathogenicity

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48

haploid

only one of each chromosome

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49

diploid

two of each chromosome

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50

sex

exchange of genetic material

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51

reproduction

making more cells

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52

meiosis

division of 1 diploid cell to generate 4 haploid cells

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53

fertilization

fusion of 2 haploid gametes to form the diploid zygote

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54

diplontic life cycles

organism is diploid and the gametes are the only haploid stage

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haplontic life cycle

mature organism is haploid and the zygote is only diploid stage

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haplo-diplontic life cycle

organism spends time in both haploid and diploid stages

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isogamy

the gametes are the same size

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anisogamy

two gametes are different sizes

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oogamy

egg is larger and sperm is smaller

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60

is both gametes are mobile it is best to be

isogamous

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61

some asexual reproducing organisms can turn sexual reproducing during times of stress because

mating locus encodes a transcription factor driving gene expression

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62

which of the following is a key eukaryotic trait that facilitated cell movement?

flexible cell membrane, complex cytoskeleton

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63

How do we know that excavates once had mitochondria but lost them?

they have homologs to proteobacterial genes in their nuclear DNA, they have hydrogenosomes with double membranes

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in chlamydomonas how does the mating type gene impact gamete formation?

expression of the gsp allele makes a positive mating type

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65

paramecium have an unusual sexual cycle. Which of the following is the most similar to what you would expect for orgnaism’s that have more normal sexual reproduction?

the 2 cells exchange one haploid micronucleus

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66

What is the main difference between the 2 different kinds of slime molds in their vegetative state?

plasmodial slime molds have many nuclei per cell, the cellular slime molds have one nuclei per cell

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67

how does the mating type locus affect the zygote

expression of the gsp and gsm alleles makes a zygote which develops, and undergoes meiosis

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68

in what eon was their visible life and fossil evidence for multicellular organisms

phanerozoic

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69

during which period do 75% of all animals go extinct and the sea levels drop by 50m

silurian

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70

multicellularity

cooperation among cells for “good” of organisms

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five requirements for multicellularity

extracellular environments, division of labor, resource allocation, proliferation inhibition, programmed cell death

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72

multicellularity evolved multiple times because

it is profitable for organisms

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73

type of multicellular designs related to nutrition

photosynthetic, adsorptive organisms, ingestive organisms (animals)

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74

convergent designs for photosynthetic organisms

flat leaves, tubular stems with roots

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ingestive organisms have specialized tissues:

muscular- to move, nervous- to coordinate, digestive- to ingest

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76

4 major multicellular clades

land plants, animals, fungi, brown alage

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77

closest unicellular relative to land plants

green algae: charophytes

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78

closets unicellular relative of animals?

choanoflagellates

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79

closet unicellular relative for fungi

opisthokonts

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80

closet unicellular relative for brown algae

unicellular stramenopiles (diatoms)

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81

why would a choanoflagellate benefit from being reversible colonial

only spontaneously form rosette colonies in presence of bacteria

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82

fungal bodies

mycelia, networks of branche hyphae

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benefits of multicellularity

overcoming long distance diffusion, task division

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84

multicellular organisms can reproduce by

budding (asexual) and producing a single celled spore or gamete (sexual)

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85

gsp allele

encodes transcription factor for making + proteins in the + gamete

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86

gsm allele

encodes transcription factor for making - proteins in the - gamete

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87

low population size induces the expression of

gsp allele

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88

the mating type locus encodes the integrates genetic machinery that

transformed cells into 2 gamete types, enable syngamy, and drives development of zygote, enables meiosis to form 4 haploid spores

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89

do organisms need to have sex organs to have sex

no

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90

what an organism needs to have to have sex:

form haploid gametes, union of haploid meiotic products to produce diploid, meiosis to form haploid stage again

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91

most animals have what kind of sexual cycles?

diplontic sexual cycles

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92

most unicellular organisms have what kind of sexual life cycle?

haplontic life cycle

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93

how do multicellular organisms switch between sexual and asexual reproduction?

during warm months reproduction is parthenogenetic = cloning, during cold months or limited food, sexual morphs are made which produced resistant “resting eggs”

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94

what is the surest form of evidence that life existed during a particular geological era?

find mineralized body parts that have fossilized

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95

which types of organisms have a division of labor with regards passing down the genetic material

a diploid organisms with some cells undergoing meiosis

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96

closets relatives to metazoans

choanoflagellates

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97

likely sequence of events for the evolution of multicellularity starting from unicellularity

colonial cells —> linear filamentous cells —> branches filamentous cells —> parenchymatous cells

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98

Where were animals fossilized following the Cambrian radiation 540 years ago

burgess shale

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99

Why was it easy for plants to live in aquatic environment

bathed in nutrients, extensive internal transport not necessary, gametes offspring transmitted by water, no desiccation, supported against gravity

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100

colonization of terrestrial environments:

early: plants evolved a new monophyletic lineage with novel adaptations for surviving on land. later: plants made terrestrial environment more survivable existing lineage of animals able to colonize

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