MSIS 2103: Exam #2

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Data Definition Language (DDL)

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100 Terms

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Data Definition Language (DDL)

• Collection of instructions and commands

• Defines and describes data and relationships in a specific database

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Data Governence

• Defines roles, responsibilities, and processes

• Ensures data can be trusted and can be used by entire organization

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Data Hierarchy

Wide to narrow (Bottom of triangle to top)

Attribute, Entity, File, and Database

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Entity

Person, place, or thing (object) for which data is collected, stored, and maintained

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File

Collection of entities

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6

Fair Credit Reporting Act

Regulates credit-reporting bureaus regarding their collection, storage, and use of credit information

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Fair and Accurate Credit Transaction Act

Consumers can request and obtain free credit report

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8

Foreign Key

Attribute in one table that refers to the primary key in another table

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9

Regression Analysis

• Determines relationship between a dependent variable and/or more independent variables

• Produces regression equation

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10

Choice

Describes options customers have

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11

First Amendment

Protects American's right to freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and freedom to assemble

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12

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)

Assigns certain rights to parents regarding their children's educational records

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13

Safety-Critical Systems

A system whose failure may cause human injury or death

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14

Fourth Amendment

Protects against unreasonable search and seizure

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Right to Financial Privacy Act

Protects the records of financial institutions' customers from unauthorized scrutiny by the federal government

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16

Internet Censorship

The control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet

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17

Fair Information Practices

A set of guidelines that govern the collection and use of personal data

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18

Professional Code of Ethics

States the principles and core values that an organization wishes to develop in its leaders and members

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19

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

• Set of data privacy requirements

• Applies to organizations that process info of individuals in the European Union

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20

Visual Analytics

• Presentation of data pictorially or graphically

• Example: Word cloud & conversion funnel

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21

Predictive Analysis

• Techniques to analyze current data

• Identifies future probabilities and trends/makes predictions about the future

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22

Data Mining

• Explores large amounts of data for hidden patterns and is used in decision making

• BI Analytics tool

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23

Scenario Analysis

Predicts future values based on certain potential events

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24

Data Lake

• Takes a "store everything" approach to big data

• Saves all data in its raw and unaltered form (doesn't do the extract, transform, and load process)

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Text Analysis

Process for extracting value from large quantities of unstructured text data

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Access

How a customer can see what has been data collected and change/correct it if necessary

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Redress

What a customer can do if privacy policy is not met

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28

Better Business Bureau Template for Privacy Policy

• Policy

• Choice

• Access

• Security

• Redress

• Updates

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29

Data Warehouse

• Large database

• Holds business information from many sources in the enterprise

• Covers all aspects of the company's processes, products, and customers

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30

Software as a Service (SaaS)

• A software delivery approach that provides users with access to software remotely as a Web-based service

(Cloud Computing Services)

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31

Control and React

• Individual devices each gather a small amount of data

• Automatic monitoring combined with remote control with trend analysis

• IoT Application

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32

Connect and Monitor

• Individual devices each gather a small amount of data

• Enables manual monitoring using simple threshold-based exception alerting

• IoT Application

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33

Predict and Adapt

• External data is used to augment sensor data

• Data used to perform predictive analysis & initiate preemptive action

• IoT Application

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34

Transform and Explore

• Sensor data combined with external data is used to provide new insights

• New business models, products, and services are created

• IoT Application

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35

Ethics

• Set of principles about right and wrong

• Used to make choices/ guide decisions

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36

Law

• System of rules

• Defines what we can and cannot do

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37

Legal Acts

Conforming to the Law

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38

Ethical Acts

Conforming to what an individual believes is right or wrong

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39

Hadoop

Open-source software framework that has modules that provide a means for storing and processing extremely large data sets

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40

Monte Carlo Simulation

• Provides a spectrum of thousands of possible outcomes

• Considers range of potential values for each variable

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41

Video Analysis

The process of obtaining information or insights from video footage

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42

Online Transaction Processing Systems (OLTP)

• Traditionally used to capture data

• Does not support data analysis required today

• Data warehouses and data marts allow organizations to access_______________

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43

Descriptive Analysis

A preliminary data processing stage used to identify patterns in the data and answer questions about who, what, where, when, and to what extent

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Data Item

Specific value of a data attribute

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45

Primary Key

Attribute or set of attributes that uniquely identifies the record

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46

Data Normalization

• Eliminates data redundancy

(Manipulating data -> Relational database)

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Projecting

• Eliminating columns in a table

(Manipulating data -> Relational database)

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48

Record

Collection of attributes about a specific entity

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49

Data Management

• Defines the processes by which data us obtained, certified fit for use, stored, secured, and processed (Ensures data accessibility, reliability, and timeliness meet the data users needs)

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50

Database as a Service (DaaS)

• The database is stored on a service provider's servers

• The database is accessed by service subscriber, typically the Internet

• Database administration is handled by the service provider

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Data Dictionary

• Detailed description of data stored in the database

• Makes it easy to share data among organizations

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52

Concurrency Control

Addresses situation where two or more users or applications access the same record at the same time

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53

Domain

The range of allowable values for a data attribute

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54

Joining

• Combining two or more tables through common data attributes to create a new table

(Manipulating data -> Relational database)

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Attribute

Characteristic of an entity

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56

SQL

• Special-purpose programming language

• Used for accessing and manipulating relational database data

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Selecting

• Eliminating rows according to certain criteria

(Manipulating data -> Relational database)

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Database Management System (DBMS)

A group of programs provided by a supplier that are used to access and manage a database as well as provide an interface between the database and its users and other application programs

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Data Scientist

• Highly inquisitive person who delivers real improvements in decision making

• Deep understanding of analytics

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60

NoSQL Database

• Data modeled without 2-dimensional tabular relations

• Provides improved access speed and redundancy

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Column NoSQL Database

Store Data into Columns

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• Column

• Graph

• Document

• Key Value

Four Categories of NoSQL databases

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Graph NoSQL Database

Type of NoSQL database that is well suited for analyzing interconnections

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Document NoSQL Database

Store, retrieve, and manage document-oriented information

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Key-Value NoSQL Database

Two columns ("key" and "value")

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66

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

• Organization outsources the equipment used to support its data processing operations

(Cloud Computing Services)

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Defamation

Oral (slander) or written (libel) statement of alleged fact that is false and harms another person

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Platform as a Service (PaaS)

• Users are provided with a computing platform, typically including an operating system, programming language execution environment, database services, and Web server

(Cloud Computing Services)

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Data Mart

A subset of data warehouses that are used by small and medium businesses and departments within large companies

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70

• Complex pricing arrangements

• Wide variations in performance over time

• Inadequate data security

• Vendor lock-in

Issues with public cloud computing:

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71

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)

• Notify parents about data collection practices

• Must receive parental consent before collecting data

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72

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Title XIII)

• Bans the sale of health information

• Provides right of access to patients

• Requires within notification within 60 days for individuals with exposed information

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73

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

• Requires standardized electronic transactions, codes, and identifiers

• Enables fully digitalized medical records

• Requires health care providers to obtain written consent from patients prior to disclosing information

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74

Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act (CDA)

Provides immunity to an Internet Service Provider (IPS) that publishes user-generated content

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75

Benefits of Public Cloud Computing

• Reduced costs

• Flexible Computing Capacity

• Increased redundancy in the event of a disaster

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76

Big Data

Enormous containing terabytes or more of information and very complex

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Volume, Velocity, Value, Variety, and Veracity

Key characteristics of big data

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78

Self-Service Analytics

Empower end users to work independently

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79

Five Steps in the Ethical Decision-Making Process

1) Develop a problem statement

2) Identify alternatives (brainstorm)

3) Choose an alternative

4) Implement decision

5) Evaluate results (observe impact)

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80

Four Key Benefits of Professional Code of Ethics

1) Improve ethical decision making

2) Sets high standards of practice and ethical behavior

3) Engineers trust and gains respect from the general public

4) Provides an evaluation benchmark

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81

Business Benefits of IoT

• Reduce costs to achieve a competitive advantage

• Deepen the organization's understanding of consumer preferences and behaviors

• Improve customer service and experience

• Improve workplace safety

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82

Private Cloud Computing

Type of cloud computing that has a single tenant, usually due to concerns about securing data

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83

Public Cloud Computing

• Email, Databases, Networking

• Smartphones and laptops

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84

Hybrid Cloud Computing

• Uses an integrated network that runs less security-sensitive applications on the public portion and more security-sensitive applications on the private portion

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85

High-Quality Software Systems

• Easy to learn and use

• Perform quickly and efficiently

• Operate safely and reliably so that the system downtime is kept to a minimum

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86

Time Series Analysis

• Uses statistical methods

• Analyzes time series data

• Extracts meaningful statistics and characteristics

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Database

A well-designed, organized, and carefully managed collection of data

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Database Approach to Data Management

• Description defining the databases logical and physical structure

• Identifies the table and attributes in each table

• Identifies the relationship between attributes and tables

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89

Four ACID Properties

Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability

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90

Genetic Algorithms

A type of analytics that employs natural selection

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Virtualization

Technological tool that allows users to access and interact with files and applications that are hosted and stored in the cloud

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Schema

A(n) ________________ is a description defining the database's logical and physical structure and identifying the relationships between attributes and tables

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93

Wearable

A smart watch that records heart rate and location is an example of what type of IoT device?

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94

5G (Lower Latency and Higher Speed)

What technology has made the IoT possible?

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95

Internet of Things

What does IoT stand for?

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96

True

True/False: Complex pricing arrangements are an issue with public cloud computing

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Security

A potential issue with IoT applications to your network

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98

Visual Analytics

A conversion funnel is an example of _____________ in descriptive analysis

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99

Unlike the EU, the U.S. has no single, overarching national data privacy policy

How do fair information practices in the United States and The European Union differ?

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100

Problem Statement

The step in the ethical decision-making process where you develop a clear, concise description of the issue being addressed

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