ABA Exam Study

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105 Terms

1

ABC

Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence - also known as 3-term contingency

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2

Abolishing Operations

Can decrease reinforcer effectiveness. Usually associated with satiation

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3

Acquisition

A target that is in the process of being taught. This behavior is not yet a known skill.

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4

Antecedent Intervention

Altering the environment to prevent any challenge behaviors from occurring; reduces triggers

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5

Antecedent

events that occur before the behavior

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6

Backwards Chaining

Teaching skill steps one at a time from the last step to the first and prompting all steps before the step being taught. Reinforcement after teaching step and at the end of the task.

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7

Behavior Intervention Plan

After conducting an FBA, a plan is implemented to change the challenged behavior

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8

Behavior Skills Training

Procedure that is used to teach new behaviors or skills. Consist of Instructions, model, behavioral rehearsal, and feedback

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9

Behavior

anything a person does that can be observed and measured

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10

4 Functions of Behavior

  1. Automatic/Sensory: providing self-stimulation and is automatically reinforced

  2. Escape: avoiding or escaping a demand or undesirable task

  3. Attention: can be socially mediated and seeks attention in any way from others

  4. Access: tangible, wanting a preferred item

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11

Chaining

Used to teach multi-step skills in which the steps involved are defined through task analysis. Each separate step is taught to link together the total "chain".

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12

Consequence

something that follows a behavior

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13

Continuous Measurement

records every single occurrence of behavior. Examples include frequency, duration, rate, and per opportunity

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14

Continuous Reinforcement

the target behavior occurs and is reinforced after every occurrence

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15

Deprivation

not having something often enough and in return, increases the effectiveness of it when used as a reinforcer

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16

Differential Reinforcement

A procedure in which desired behavior is reinforced while unwanted behaviors are extinguished

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17

DRA (Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior)

Reinforce behavior that is an appropriate alternative for the undesirable behavior

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18

DRO (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior)

Reinforce any other behavior other than the undesirable behavior

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19

DRI (Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior)

alternative behavior you choose to reinforce is contradictory with the target behavior (ex: nail bitting → clap hands)

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20

Discontinuous Measurement

Measure by instances of behavior but not all. Typically associated with partial and whole interval recording and momentary time sampling

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21

Discrete Trial Training (DTT)

A technique used to break down a skill into smaller parts, teaching those part with reinforcement

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22

Discrimination Training

reinforcing behavior in the presence of one stimulus but not the other. Beneficial for understanding how to respond to different environments

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23

Discriminative Stimulus (SD)

a cue that signals reinforcement is available if the child makes a particular response (Demand or Instruction).

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24

Dual Relationship

situation where multiple roles exist between a therapist and a parent or client. (Multiple Relatioships)

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25

Duration

the amount of time that someone engages in a behavior

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26

Echoic

verbal imitation, repeating the speaker

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27

Correction (ECTER)

When a client makes a mistake on a target that has been previously mastered, do NOT acknowledge the mistake. Re-present the trial and be ready to prompt to get a correct answer

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Errorless Teaching

prompt the correct response as soon as you give the Sd. Essentially, you are not giving the client a chance to make an error.

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29

Establishing Operation

Increase the effectiveness of reinforcement. Usually, deprivation is associated with this operation

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30

Ethics

Must follow the BCBA's code of ethics. Failure to follow the mandatory code of ethics can lead to loss of employment and certification. Please review the Code of Ethics outline.

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31

Expressive Language

The ability to communicate. This can be identified as labeling, describing, manding, answering, and forming sentences

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32

Extinciton

The withholding of reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior, resulting in reduction of that behavior

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33

Extinction Burst

The increase of frequency and/or intensity of behavior in the early stages of extinction

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34

Fixed Interval (FI)

this schedule of reinforcement is used for a set amount of responses

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35

Fixed Ratio (FR)

this schedule of reinforcement is used for a set amount of responses

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36

Forward Chaining

Teaching skill steps one at a time from the first step to the last and prompting all steps after the step being taught. Reinforcement after teaching step and at the end of the task.

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37

Frequency

the amount of times, or count, a behavior or response happens.

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38

Functional Behavioral Assessment

This is the process by which behavioral interventions are created. A Functional Behavior Assessment involves thing in observation, interview, and collecting ABC data.

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39

Functional Relationship

how a person's behaviors change the world around him/her, and how those changes affect the future likelihood on the same behaviors.

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40

Functions of Behavior

Used when determining why an individual engages in certain behavior. ABA identifies 4 functions of a behavior

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41

Generalization

when the behavior occurs outside of the learning environment. It can happen across settings, time and across people and exists when the behavior occurs in these various environments

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42

HIPPA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act)

HIPPA provides federal protection for the individual health information, including the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of protected information

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43

Imitation

Copying someone's motor movements

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44

Incidental Teaching

a teaching technique used in naturally occurring environments and can create natural incidents of learning.

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45

Instructional Control

Establishing a good working relationship with the client to help with the teaching processes (reinforcing compliance)

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46

Intermittent Reinforcement

Schedule of reinforcing some but not all desirable behavior; delivering reinforcement at a irregular interval

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47

Inter-Response Time

The time between two responses given

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48

Intraverbal

Building blocks to conversation skills and it's the ability to discuss, describe, or answer a question about something that isn't physically present.

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49

Latency

The time between when the Sd is presented, and the response is given

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50

Listener Responding

Following a direction given. Receptive language goal.

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51

Listener Responding Feature Function Class (LRFFC)

used to describe and receptively find an object by it’s given feature, function or class of that item.

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52

Magnitude

the force or intensity with which a response is emitted

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53

Maintenance

The ability of a child to demonstrate previously acquired skills over time and durations when the reinforcement has been faded

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54

Mand

asking for something: a request that has motivation

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55

Measurement

Collecting data on various skills or behaviors

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56

Momentary Time Sample

looking for a behavior's occurrence during a specific part of the interval and recording if it is occurring at that precise moment. Ex: setting a timer to go off every minute for a 30-minute interval, only checking for behavior and marking it down as the timer goes off.

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57

Motivating Operation

Change in environment that increases or decreases the effectiveness of a given reinforcer. Used with EO or AO.

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58

Natural Environment Teaching

Naturalistic teaching is when the learner initiates a learning opportunity and the reinforcer is a result of the activity or learning opportunity

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59

Negative Reinforcement

removing a stimulus to increase a behavior/ strengthen behavior

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60

Operational Definition

Definitions of behavior that are measurable, objective and observable

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61

Pairing

establishing yourself as a reinforcer or the deliverer of reinforcement while building positive relationship

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62

Partial Interval Recording

involves checking off an interval if the behavior occurs at ANY point within the interval

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63

Permanent Product

Any behavior that leaves an impact on the environment and can be recorded after the behavior occurs

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64

Positive Reinforcement

Adding a stimulus to strengthen/ increase behavior

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65

Preference Assessment

Assessment to determine what a child is motivated by

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66

Primary Reinforcer (unconditioned)

items or activities that are naturally reinforcing

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Deprivation

The withholding of a stimulus

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68

Immediacy

How quickly a reinforcer is presented after a correct response is emitted

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69

Size

The amount of reinforcement given after a correct response is emitted

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70

Contingency

If ____ then ____ statements is used to set the expectation for reinforcement to occur

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71

Prompt

any form of assistance added to evoke a correct response or behavior

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Prompt Hierarchy

level of prompts used from greatest to least or least to greatest

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Expressive Language Hierarchy

Full verbal → Partial verbal → Independent

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74

Receptive Language Hierarchy

Full physical → Partial physical → Model → Gestural → Independent

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75

Prompt Fading

gradually removing prompt levels needed or fading out the intrusiveness

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76

Punishment

anything that is added or removed after a behavior that decreases it, make is less likely to happen again

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77

Positive Punishment

A stimulus presented after a behavior occurs which decreases the behavior

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78

Negative Punishment

A stimulus removed after a behavior occurs which decreases the behavior

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79

Rate

calculates the number of times a behavior occurs in a specific time interval (more time based than frequency)

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80

Reactive Strategies

Techniques used in an emergency or crisis situation to gain control of dangerous, out of control behaviors

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81

Receptive Language

listener behavior and refers to tasks that require a non-vocal action or motor response such as imitation, or pointing

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82

Reinforcement

Anything that is added or removed after a behavior that increases it, makes it more likely to occur

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83

Positive Reinforcement

A stimulus presented after a behavior occurs which increases the behavior.

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84

Negative Reinforcement

A stimulus removed after a behavior occurs which increases the behavior

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85

Replacement Behavior

A behavior you want to replace an unwanted target behavior with

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86

Response Prompt

something added directly to the response that assists the client to complete the correct response; gestural, model, or verbal prompt

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87

Role of an RBT

program implementation, data collection, communicating w/ stakeholders, work directly with BCBA and following written program including BIP

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88

Satiation

When a reinforcer loses its effectiveness due to overuse

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89

Secondary Reinforcer (conditioned)

items or activities that acquire reinforcing properties when paired with primary reinforcers

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90

Setting Events

The context or circumstance in which an environment-behavior relationship occurs. The event changes the strengths of stimuli and responses involved in an environment-behavior interaction.

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91

Shaping

the process of reinforcing approximation of behavior to gradually work on the full response

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92

Skill Acquisition

Developing of new skills, habits, quality

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93

Spontaneous Recovery

The reappearance of the extinguished behavior after a period without reinforcing the behavior

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94

Stimulus

anything that elicits a response followed the consequence

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95

Stimulus Control

when a behavior occurs in the presence of a particular stimulus than its absence bc its predictive of a reinforcement (ex: Rings → check phone)

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96

Stimulus Control Transfer

A process in which prompts are removed in order to bring the behavior under the control of the Sd and is achieved by prompt fading

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97

Stimulus Prompt

something is added to the stimulus that signals the correct response; positional, redundancy (exaggerate), movement (pointing)

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98

Tact

A form of verbal behavior where the speaker sees, hears, smells, tastes something and then comments about it

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99

Task Analysis

The process of breaking a skill down into smaller, more manageable

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100

Token Economy

a method used to try and reinforce (increase) the frequency of a target behavior

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