Psych Midterm 2

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adaptability

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109 Terms

1

adaptability

our capacity to learn new behaviors that help us cope with our changing world

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2

Associative Learning

When we link two events that occur closely together

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3

Classical Conditioning

We learn to associate two stimuli and thus anticipate events

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4

Operant Conditioning

We learn to associate a response(behavior) and its consequence

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5

How long does it take for a behavior to become a habit?

66 Days

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6

Cognitive Learning

Acquiring mental information that guides behavior

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7

behaviorism

an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior

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8

Acquisition

The learning of the stimulus

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9

Higher Order Conditioning

New Neutral Stimulus becomes Conditioned Stimulus without presence of Unconditioned Stimulus; Just needs to be associated with a previously conditioned stimulus

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10

Extinction

The diminished response when the Conditioned Stimulus no longer signals Unconditioned Stimulus

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11

Spontaneous Recovery

When a weakened Conditioned Response comes back (reappears) after a pause

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12

Generalization

Responding to stimuli similar to the Conditioned Stimulus

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13

Discrimination

The learned ability to be able to distinguish between Conditioned Stimuli and irrelevant stimuli

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14

Sensation

A feeling

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15

Perception

the process by which our brains organize and interpret sensory inputs

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16

Two types of processing

Bottom up & Top down

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17

Top-down Processing

Constructs perceptions from sensory input by drawing on experience & expectations

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18

Bottom-up Processing

Starts from sensory receptors and works up to higher levels of processing

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19

Three key steps to processing

Receive the message, Transform into neural impulses, and deliver the information to the brain

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20

Transduction

The process of converting one form of energy into another that our brain can use

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21

Absolute Threshold

the lowest level of stimulation that a person can detect

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22

Signal Detection Theory

predicts when we will detect weak signals

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23

Subliminal Stimuli

Stimuli that we cannot detect consciously

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24

Difference Threshold

The minimum stimulus difference a person can detect half of the time; increases with size of stimulus

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25

Weber's Law

for an average person to percieve a difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage

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26

Sensory Adaptation

When you're constantly exposed to something and you get used to it

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27

Perceptual Set

A set of mental tendencies and assumptions that affects, top down, what we hear, taste, feel, and see

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28

Figure-ground

To separate faces from their backgrounds

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29

Grouping

When our mind brings order and form to other stimuli by following certain rules

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30

Binocular Cues

What we use to judge the distance of nearby objects

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31

Retinal Disparities

We have these because of the space between our eyes

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32

Monocular Cues

When we want to see things at far far distances

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33

Phi Phenomenon

Our brain perceiving a rapid series of slightly varying images as continuous movement

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34

Perceptual Constancy

A top down process when we recognize objects without being deceived by changes in their color, brightness, shape, or size

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35

Luminance

The amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings

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36

Size Constancy

the tendency to perceive the veridical size of a familiar object despite differences in their distance

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37

Perceptual Adaptation

When visual inputs are changed, this helps us make the world seem normal again

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38

Height(Amplitude) of a sound wave

Determines the perceived loudness of a sound wave

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39

Frequency of a sound wave

Determines the pitch of a sound wave

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40

Place Theory

Explains how we hear high pitch sounds, but not low pitched sounds

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41

Frequency Theory (Temporal Coding)

Suggests the brain reads pitch by monitoring the frequency

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42

Nociceptors

These detect hurtful temperatures, pressure, or chemicals

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43

Gate-Control Theory

Suggests the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that controls the transmission of pain messages to the brain

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44

Priming

This process explains why our associations are activated without our awareness

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45

Encodinc Specificity Principle

Explains how specific cues will trigger a memory

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46

Serial Position Effect

Explains why we have holes in our memory after a list of recent events

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47

Anterograde Amnesia

A condition where we can remember the past but can't form new memories

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48

Retrograde Amnesia

A condition where we can't remember the past along with a loss of memory for events immediately preceding a trauma

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49

Proactive Interference

When prior learning disrupts recall of new information

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50

Retroactive Interference

When new learning disrupts recall of old information

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51

Positive Transfer

When skills used while performing other skills integrate positively into a new skill

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52

Misinformation Effect

When what you heard separates from who or what you heard it from

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53

Source Amnesia

When we can't remember if something is real or fake

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54

Recall

Retrieving information that is not currently in your mind, but learned before

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55

Recognition

Identifying items previously learned

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56

Relearning

Learning something more quickly a second or third time

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57

What determines memory strength?

The speed at which we recall, recognize, and relearn information

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58

Explicit(Declarative) Memories

The facts and experiences we can constantly know & declare

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59

Implicit(Nondeclarative) memories

Information that you remember unconsciously and effortlessly

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60

Automatic Processing

Processing things we don't actively think about(effortless)

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61

Iconic Memory

Visual memories

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62

Echoic Memories

Auditory memories

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63

Chunking

Organizes items into familiar manageable units

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64

Mnemonics

Using vivid imagery to paint a picture into your head about information that helps you remember information

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65

Hierarchies

Broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts

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66

Spacing Effect

Encoding distributed over time

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67

Testing Effect

Repeated self testing

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68

Shallow Processing

Encodes on an elementary level

things like words, letters, or a word's sound

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69

Deep Processing

Encodes semantically based on the meaning of words

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70

What does the Basal Ganglia do?

Facilitates formation of our procedural memories for skills

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71

When we're stressed, which part of the brain helps initiate a memory trace that boosts activity in memory forming areas?

The amygdala

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72

Cognition

the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating info

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73

Metocognition

Thinking about thinking

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74

Algorightims

Step by step procedures that guarantee a solution

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75

Heuristics

Simpler thinking strategies

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76

Insight

An abrupt, true seeming, and often satisfying solution

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77

Confirmation Bias

Makes us look for evidence that more closely aligns with our ideas compared to finding evidence to support another idea

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78

Fixation

An inability to come to a fresh perspective

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79

Mental Set

Tendency to approach problems with what previously worked

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80

Intuition

Fast, automatic, unreasoned feelings & thoughts

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81

Representativeness Heuristic

To judge the likelihood of something by intuitively comparing it to particular prototypes

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82

Availability Heuristic

Estimating the commonality of an event based on its mental availability

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83

Overconfidence

The tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge & judgements

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84

Belief Perseverance

Clinging to information we believe is true even when presented with other evidence

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85

Creativity

The ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable

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86

Convergent Thinking

an ability to provide a single correct answer

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87

Divergent Thinking

The ability to consider many different options and think in novel ways

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88

Components of Creativity

Expertise, Imaginative Thinking Skills, Determined Personality, Intrinsic Motivation, Creative Environment

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89

Developmental Psychology

Examines our physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span

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90

Stability

Provides our Identity

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91

Change

Allows us to adapt and grow from experience

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92

Habituation

A decrease in responding with repeated stimulation

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93

Schemas

Concepts or mental molds we pour our experiences into

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94

Assimilation

interpreting experiences in terms of our current schemas

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95

Accomodation

we do this to our schemas to incorporate information from new experiences

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96

Object Permanance

The awareness that objects continue to exist even when not percieved

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97

Conservation

The principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape

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98

Theory of Mind

Ability to infer others' mental states

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99

Stranger Anxiety

When children can't assimilate a new face into remembered schemas, they become distressed

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100

Secure attachment

Happy and exploring when mom is around; Distressed when mom is absent; Seek contact with her upon arrival

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