2. Diagnostics

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Lecture 2

121 Terms

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improving knowledge

Bacterial diagnostics plays an important role in

  1. __________ __________ on pathogens involved in clinical syndromes and complementing clinical judgement

  2. Avoiding economic loss due to infectious disease in production animals

  3. Improving knowledge on pathogens of public health importance

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clinical syndromes

Bacterial diagnostics plays an important role in

  1. Improving knowledge on pathogens involved in ________ ________ and complementing clinical judgement

  2. Avoiding economic loss due to infectious disease in production animals

  3. Improving knowledge on pathogens of public health importance

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economic loss

Bacterial diagnostics plays an important role in

  1. Improving knowledge on pathogens involved in clinical syndromes and complementing clinical judgement

  2. Avoiding ___________ ___________ due to infectious disease in production animals

  3. Improving knowledge on pathogens of public health importance

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production animals

Bacterial diagnostics plays an important role in

  1. Improving knowledge on pathogens involved in clinical syndromes and complementing clinical judgement

  2. Avoiding economic loss due to infectious disease in _________ _________

  3. Improving knowledge on pathogens of public health importance

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public health

Bacterial diagnostics plays an important role in

  1. Improving knowledge on pathogens involved in clinical syndromes and complementing clinical judgement

  2. Avoiding economic loss due to infectious disease in production animals

  3. Improving knowledge on pathogens of ________ ________ importance

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diagnostic workup

___________ ___________ is central to determining

  • etiologic agent

  • pathogen transmission

  • appropriate treatment

  • disease prognosis

  • preventative and control measures

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etiologic agent

Diagnostic workup is central to determining

  • __________ _________

  • pathogen transmission

  • appropriate treatment

  • disease prognosis

  • preventative and control measures

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pathogen transmission

Diagnostic workup is central to determining

  • etiologic agent

  • __________ ___________

  • appropriate treatment

  • disease prognosis

  • preventative and control measures

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appropriate treatment

Diagnostic workup is central to determining

  • etiologic agent

  • pathogen transmission

  • __________ ___________

  • disease prognosis

  • preventative and control measures

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disease prognosis

Diagnostic workup is central to determining

  • etiologic agent

  • pathogen transmission

  • appropriate treatment

  • __________ ____________

  • preventative and control measures

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preventative, control

Diagnostic workup is central to determining

  • etiologic agent

  • pathogen transmission

  • appropriate treatment

  • disease prognosis

  • __________ and ___________ measures

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pre-analytical

During the __________________ phase, the clinician formulates a presumptive diagnosis and ddx list based on anamnesis and physical exam.

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clinician

During the pre-analytical phase, the ____________ formulates a presumptive diagnosis and ddx list based on anamnesis and physical exam.

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diagnosis, ddx

During the pre-analytical phase, the clinician formulates a presumptive ___________ and ______ list based on anamnesis and physical exam.

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anamnesis

During the pre-analytical phase, the clinician formulates a presumptive diagnosis and ddx list based on __________ and physical exam.

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physical exam

During the pre-analytical phase, the clinician formulates a presumptive diagnosis and ddx list based on anamnesis and __________ ________.

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patient history

In veterinary medicine, anamnesis roughly translates to

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pre-analytical

During the ___________________ phase, the clinician will collect appropriate samples and select the appropriate tests.

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clinician

During the pre-analytical phase, the _______________ will collect appropriate samples and select the appropriate tests.

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samples, tests

During the pre-analytical phase, the clinician will collect appropriate ____________ and select the appropriate ___________.

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laboratory

When selecting tests, it’s important to confirm the ____________ you use offers those services.

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pre-analytical

During the ____________________ phase, the clinician will prepare a complete submission form.

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clinician

During the pre-analytical phase, the _____________ will prepare a complete submission form.

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complete submission form

During the pre-analytical phase, the clinician will prepare a ___________ _________ __________

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complete submission form

A ________ _______ ________ includes

  • signalment

  • history

  • sample type

  • vaccination history

  • treatment history

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signalment

A complete submission form includes

  • _____________

  • history

  • sample type

  • vaccination history

  • treatment history

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history

A complete submission form includes

  • signalment

  • _____________

  • sample type

  • vaccination history

  • treatment history

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sample type

A complete submission form includes

  • signalment

  • history

  • __________ _________

  • vaccination history

  • treatment history

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vaccination history

A complete submission form includes

  • signalment

  • history

  • sample type

  • __________ __________

  • treatment history

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treatment history

A complete submission form includes

  • signalment

  • history

  • sample type

  • vaccination history

  • __________ ___________

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clinical presentation

When collecting samples, it’s important to base decisions based on ___________ ____________ and tests to be performed.

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test, performed

When collecting samples, it’s important to base decisions based on clinical presentation and ___________ to be _____________.

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minimize contamination

When collecting samples, it’s important to ___________ ___________ and to submit adequate quantity of sample.

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quantity

When collecting samples, it’s important to minimize contamination and to submit adequate ___________ of sample.

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true

(TRUE/FALSE): It is best to collect samples during the acute or early stage of disease as chronic stages typically show decreased organism load.

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false

(TRUE/FALSE): It is best to collect samples once the disease has become chronic due to the typical increase in organism load.

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lesions

When collecting samples, it is best to collect multiple specimens for multiple __________ and multiple tests.

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tests

When collecting samples, it is best to collect multiple specimens for multiple lesions and multiple __________.

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before

If the clinician suspects a bacterial infection, samples should be collected (BEFORE/AFTER) starting antimicrobial therapies

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transudate

Buildup of fluid from vessel leakage. Typically bilateral, pale yellow, and translucent.

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exudate

Buildup of fluid from tissue leakage. Typically cloudy, bloody, and high in protein.

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edta

If collecting blood for PCR - ex: to evaluate for bacterial DNA - use ____________ tubes.

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blood culture

If collecting blood for a culture, use appropriate ________ ________ tubes.

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red top

If collecting blood for serology, use _______ ______ tubes.

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true

(TRUE/FALSE): Cystocentesis is preferred over catheterization

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false

(TRUE/FALSE): Catheterization is preferred over cystocentesis

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middle

If collecting urine as a free catch, it is best to collect from the (START/MIDDLE/END) of the stream

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buffered

If performing a lavage or wash, utilize a ________ solution such as saline and LRS.

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anaerobic

If an anaerobic infection is suspected, _______________ transport medium should be used.

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true

(TRUE/FALSE): fixed samples can be used for molecular Dx (PCR).

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first

Samples for culture should be collected (FIRST/LAST) during necropsy

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agent, immune response

Common diagnostic methods involve either detection of the _________ or detection of the host ___________ __________.

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direct detection

Detection of the agent

  1. _________ _________ of the bacteria

  2. culture isolation and identification

  3. direct detection of antigens or metabolites like toxins

  4. molecular techniques to detect bacterial DNA

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culture isolation

Detection of the agent

  1. direct detection of the bacteria

  2. _________ ___________ and identification

  3. direct detection of antigens or metabolites like toxins

  4. molecular techniques to detect bacterial DNA

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antigens

Detection of the agent

  1. direct detection of the bacteria

  2. culture isolation and identification

  3. direct detection of ___________ or metabolites like toxins

  4. molecular techniques to detect bacterial DNA

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metabolites

Detection of the agent

  1. direct detection of the bacteria

  2. culture isolation and identification

  3. direct detection of antigens or _____________ like toxins

  4. molecular techniques to detect bacterial DNA

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molecular techniques

Detection of the agent

  1. direct detection of the bacteria

  2. culture isolation and identification

  3. direct detection of antigens or metabolites like toxins

  4. ___________ __________ to detect bacterial DNA

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humoral

Detection of host immune response

  1. Detection of ____________ immunity (serology)

  2. Detection of cell-mediated immunity

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serology

Detection of host immune response

  1. Detection of humoral immunity (_____________)

  2. Detection of cell-mediated immunity

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cell-mediated

Detection of host immune response

  1. Detection of humoral immunity (serology)

  2. Detection of ________________ immunity

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low, high

BSL-1 labs are considered (HIGH/LOW) risk, while BSL-4 are considered (HIGH/LOW).

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high, low

BSL-4 labs are considered (HIGH/LOW) risk, while BSL-5 are considered (HIGH/LOW).

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4

The highest Biosafety level is BSL-___

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1

BSL-___ labs work with agents not associated with disease in healthy adult humans.

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2

BSL-___ labs work with agents associated with diseases that are rarely serious in healthy adult humans.

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3

BSL-__ labs work with agents associated with diseases that are serious or lethal for which preventatives or therapeutic interventions may be available.

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4

BSL-___ labs work with agents likely to cause serious or lethal disease for which preventatives or therapeutic interventions are usually not available.

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gram-stain

Stain method. Used for routine staining of bacteria in smears. Stains gram + bacteria purple/blue and gram - bacteria pink/red

<p>Stain method. Used for routine staining of bacteria in smears. Stains gram + bacteria purple/blue and gram - bacteria pink/red</p>
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Diff quick

Stain method. Useful for demostrating dermatophilus congolensis, rickettsiae, and borrelia species which stain blue.

<p>Stain method. Useful for demostrating dermatophilus congolensis, rickettsiae, and borrelia species which stain blue.</p>
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giemsa

Diff quick stains are also known as _________ stains.

<p>Diff quick stains are also known as _________ stains.</p>
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DCF

Stain method. Useful for recognizing campylobacter spp, brachyspira spp, and fusobacterium spp which stain red.

<p>Stain method. Useful for recognizing campylobacter spp, brachyspira spp, and fusobacterium spp which stain red.</p>
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polychrome methylene blue

Stain method. Used for identification of bacillus anthracis in blood smears. The organisms stain blue with distinctive pink capsules.

<p>Stain method. Used for identification of bacillus anthracis in blood smears. The organisms stain blue with distinctive pink capsules.</p>
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ziehl-neelsen

Stain method. Hot concentrated carbol fuchsin which penetrates mycobacterial cell walls is retained after acid-alcohol decolorization. Used for identification of mycobacterium such as tuberculosis.

<p>Stain method. Hot concentrated carbol fuchsin which penetrates mycobacterial cell walls is retained after acid-alcohol decolorization. Used for identification of mycobacterium such as tuberculosis.</p>
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modified ziehl-neelsen

Stain method. Dilute carbol fuchsin is retained after decolorization by acetic acid.

<p>Stain method. Dilute carbol fuchsin is retained after decolorization by acetic acid.</p>
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acid-fast

The Ziehl-Neelsen stain is a type of ______________ stain

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culturing

Gold standard method of diagnosis of many bacterial diseases.

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culture media

Contains essential nutrients for growth of non-fastidious bacteria.

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selective media

Culture media that only supports growth of select bacteria.

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differential media

Culture media that distinguishes one bacteria from another growing on the same plate.

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hemolysin

Blood agar plates are for recognition of __________ production.

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both

MacConkey agar plates are (SELECTIVE/DIFFERENTIAL/BOTH)

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SELECTIVE

PEA agar plates are (SELECTIVE/DIFFERENTIAL/BOTH).

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selective

Sabourad’s dextrose agar is (SELECTIVE/DIFFERENTIAL/BOTH).

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differential

Blood agar plates are (SELECTIVE/DIFFERENTIAL/BOTH).

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gram +

Phenylethyl alcohol agar is selective for

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gram -

MacConkey agar is selective for

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fungi

Sabourad’s dextrose agar is selective for

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hemolysin

Blood agar is differential for ______________ production.

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lactose

MacConkey agar is differential for _____________ fermentation.

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gamma

Section 1 of this blood agar plate shows (ALPHA/BETA/GAMMA) hemolysis

<p>Section 1 of this blood agar plate shows (ALPHA/BETA/GAMMA) hemolysis</p>
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beta

Section 2 of this blood agar plate shows (ALPHA/BETA/GAMMA) hemolysis

<p>Section 2 of this blood agar plate shows (ALPHA/BETA/GAMMA) hemolysis</p>
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alpha

Section 3 of this blood agar plate shows (ALPHA/BETA/GAMMA) hemolysis

<p>Section 3 of this blood agar plate shows (ALPHA/BETA/GAMMA) hemolysis</p>
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more

Bacteria demonstrating beta hemolysis are typically (MORE/LESS) virulent than those capable of alpha hemolysis.

<p>Bacteria demonstrating beta hemolysis are typically (MORE/LESS) virulent than those capable of alpha hemolysis.</p>
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iron

Beta hemolytic bacteria are searching for _________.

<p>Beta hemolytic bacteria are searching for _________.</p>
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yellow

The starting color of MacConkey agar is (PINK/YELLOW).

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pink, lower

MacConkey agar turns (PINK/YELLOW) when there is lactose fermentation resulting in a (LOWER/HIGHER) pH

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lowering

Lactose fermentation generates acid, (RAISING/LOWERING) the pH.

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isolated pure cultures

This diagram shows a plate inoculation technique for obtaining

<p>This diagram shows a plate inoculation technique for obtaining</p>
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bacterial colony

A visible mass of bacteria all originating from a single mother cell.

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