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Polypeptide

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Biology

9th

116 Terms

1

Polypeptide

amino acid chain

<p>amino acid chain</p>
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2

nucleotide

The definition is the picture->->->->->->->->

<p>The definition is the picture-&gt;-&gt;-&gt;-&gt;-&gt;-&gt;-&gt;-&gt;</p>
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3

Cell Division

Drugs that are used to treat diseases like cancer usually target what cellular process?

<p>Drugs that are used to treat diseases like cancer usually target what cellular process?</p>
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4

Enzyme

protein that speeds up chemical reactions

<p>protein that speeds up chemical reactions</p>
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5

Active Site

enzymes are specific so only the correct substrate will fit into the enzyme's ___________ site

<p>enzymes are specific so only the correct substrate will fit into the enzyme&apos;s ___________ site</p>
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6

substrate

molecule that the enzyme works on to build-up or break-down into the resulting product.

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7

Factors that effect how enzymes work

temperature, pH, concentration

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8

catalyst

lowers activation energy for chemical reactions to proceed. Enzymes act as catalyst in biological reactions.

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9

Photosynthetic Equation

6H20 + 6CO2 --> C6H12O6 + 6O2

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10

Chloroplast

organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy

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11

Reactants of Photosynthesis

6H20 + 6CO2

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12

Products of Photosynthesis

C6H12O6 + 6O2

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13

Photosynthetic Pigments

Chemicals like chlorophyll (in chloroplasts) that absorb light energy and use it to carry out photosynthesis.

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14

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

Chemical energy source created in cellular respiration that cells use for most of their work.

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15

Autotrophic

An organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances, using light or chemical energy. Green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are autotrophs.

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16

Chloroplasts

Organelle that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.

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17

Photosynthesis

The process that converts light energy into chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes.

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18

Chlorophyll

Green pigment located in membranes within the chloroplasts of plants and algae and in the membranes of certain prokaryotes.

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19

6CO2 + 6H2O ā†’ C6H12O6 + 6O2

What is the balanced equation for photosynthesis?

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20

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

What provides the carbon atoms that are incorporated into sugar molecules in photosynthesis?

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21

Cancer

What disease is characterized by repeated cell divisions caused by disruptions to the cell cycle

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22

Tumor

Uncontrolled cell division

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23

What might cause a disruption to the cell cycle?

Mutations to a gene that controls the cell cycle

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24

Checkpoints (in G1, G2, and M phase)

What happens throughout the cell cycle that helps the cell to PREVENT disruptions to the cell cycle?

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25

tumor

What do we call the abnormal growth of tissue caused by a disruption to the cell cycle?

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26

malignant cancer

rapidly dividing tumor cells which metastasize

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27

transcription

the process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

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28

translation

the process whereby genetic information coded in mRNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome

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29

mRNA

messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

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30

tRNA

transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

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31

rRNA

ribosomal RNA; is a component in the structure of a ribosome

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32

codon

a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of mRNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid

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33

anticodon

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

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34

complementary base pairing

Hydrogen bonding between particular bases.

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35

In DNA, T pairs with A; G pairs with C;

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36

RNA, U pairs with A and G pairs with C

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37

RNA polymerase

An enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template.

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38

cytoplasm

the organelles and jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

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39

ribosome

organelles at which proteins are synthesized.

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40

nucleus

A part of the cell containing DNA in eukaryotic cells

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41

thymine ... cytosine

In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand, and a guanine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand.

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42

After DNA replication is completed, strands produced are "semi-conservative"

each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand

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43

anti-parallel

one strand of the DNA double helix runs 3' to 5', the complementary strand runs 5' to 3'

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44

sister chromatids

After replication is complete, the new DNAs, called _________, are identical to each other and joined together at the centromere

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45

passive transport

the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell

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46

diffusion

movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

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47

concentration gradient

the difference in the concentration of molecules across a distance.

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48

equilibrium

the concentration of molecules will be the same throughout the space the molecules occupy.

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49

osmosis

the process by which water molecules diffuse across a cell membrane.

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50

cytolysis

the bursting of a cell

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51

facilitated diffusion

the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins.

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52

carrier protein

a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane.

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53

active transport

the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy.

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54

endocytosis

the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell.

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55

exocytosis

the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out.

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56

selectively permeable

some materials can pass through while others can not

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57

diffusion

molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

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58

osmosis

diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane

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59

passive transport

the movement of materials across a cell membrane without using energy

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60

active transport

the cell must use energy to transport materials across the cell membrane

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61

solute

a substance ex. (sugar or salt) that is dissolved in another substance

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62

solvent

usually a liquid that dissolves another substance ex. water

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63

Gene mutation

Mutations in the sequencing of the DNA. Affects one gene and typically one protein.

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64

Chromosomal mutation

Mutations in part or the whole chromosome. Affects many genes and many proteins.

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65

Point mutation

The change in ONE nitrogen base in the DNA sequencing. Ex: A changes to C

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66

Substitution

Same as point mutation. One base changed to another.

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67

Frame Shift Mutation

An INSERTION or DELETION gene mutation. (Changes the "reading frame" base sequencing by shifting the codon grouping of 3.)

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68

Base deletion

Mutation where one nitrogen base of the DNA is lost and shifts the reading frame. Many amino acids are incorrect.

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69

Base insertion

Mutation where one nitrogen base of the DNA is added and shifts the reading frame. Many amino acids are incorrect.

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70

chromosome deletion mutation

Mutation where a segment of the chromosome (containing one or more genes) is lost. Affects many proteins and genes.

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71

Base Insertion Mutation

Mutation where one or more nucleotides is added to the genetic sequence, often drastically altering the proteins made.

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72

Base Deletion Mutation

frame-shift mutation where a nucleotide is deleted from the genetic material

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73

Substitution Mutation

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74

substitution (point mutation)

What type of gene mutation is show in this image?

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75

insertion (framshift mutation)

What type of gene mutation is show in this image?

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76

deletion (frameshift mutation)

What type of gene mutation is show in this image?

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77

substitution (point mutation)

What type of gene mutation is show in this image?

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78

point mutation (substitution)

What type of gene mutation is show in this image?

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79

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

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80

double helix

2 complimentary strands of DNA joined by hydrogen bonds in a twist

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81

A, T, C, G

four nitrogenous bases of DNA

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82

thymine

Adenine (A) pairs with ____

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83

cytosine

Guanine (G) pairs with _____

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84

DNA replication

synthesis of DNA strands which are identical to each other and to the original DNA molecule

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85

DNA polymerase

enzyme that bonds the complementary nucleotides to an open DNA strand. Can also proofread and fix errors in incorrect base pairing.

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86

nucleus

place where DNA storage & replication occurs

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87

RNA

ribonucleic acid

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88

uracil

base that replaces Thymine (T) in RNA

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89

protein

nutrient that carries out MOST of the functions of the cell

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90

e.g. enzymes, hormones, antibodies, cell membrane proteins, haemoglobin, muscle, clotting, collagen ...

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91

nucleotide

one unit of a sugar + phosphate + base

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92

chromatin

long strands of DNA

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93

(when cell NOT replicating)

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94

gene expression

DNA codes for proteins which create the expressed traits of the organism

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95

histone

protein that DNA coils aroound

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96

triplet/codon

3 bases on DNA that code for an amino acid

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97

(or base triplet)

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98

amino acid

subunit that makes up a protein

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99

(20 amino acids - 10 nonessential

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100

i.e. made by human body)

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