PSY105 Test 3

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trauma and stressor related disorders

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393 Terms

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trauma and stressor related disorders

new classification in DSM-5

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shared origin, stressful life events

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includes PTSD, acute stress disorder, adjustment disorders, and attachment disorders

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main etiologic characteristics

trauma exposure and response

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re-experiencing

main etiologic characteristic

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avoidance

main etiologic characteristic

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emotional numbing and interpersonal problems

main etiologic characteristic

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markedly interferes with one's ability to function

main etiologic characteristic

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PTSD diagnosis

reaction persists for one month or more

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recurrent involuntary distressing memories of traumatic event

intrusion symptom

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recurrent distressing dreams related to traumatic event

intrusion symptom

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dissociative reactions (flashbacks)

intrusion symptom

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intense or prolonged psychological distress to internal or external cues

intrusion symptom

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marked physiological reaction to cues

intrusion symptom

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traumatic event DSM-5

exposure to death, serious injury, or sexual violence

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directly experiencing traumatic event, witnessing the event, learning about event happening to family, experiencing exposure to details

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avoidance symptoms

avoidance of distressing memories/internal stuff or of external reminders

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inability to remember an important aspect of traumatic event

negative cognitions and mood

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persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs or expectations about oneself, others, or the world

negative cognitions

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persistent, distorted cognitions about cause/consequences of traumatic event

negative cognitions

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persistent negative emotional state

negative mood

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markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities

negative cognition

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feelings of detachment or estrangement from others

negative cognition

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persistent inability to experience positive emotions

negative cognition

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irritable behavior and angry outbursts

arousal and reactivity symptoms

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reckless or self-destructive behavior

arousal and reactivity symptoms

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hypervilgilance

arousal and reactivity symptoms

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exaggerated startle response

arousal and reactivity symptoms

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problems with concentration

arousal and reactivity symptoms

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sleep disturbance

arousal and reactivity symptoms

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duration of disturbance

more than 1 month

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most common traumas

combat and sexual assault

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percent of people that experience PTSD

7%

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acute

one to three months post trauma

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chronic

diagnosed after three months

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delayed onset

six months or more post trauma

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acute stress disorder

PTSD immediately post-trauma

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CBT

highly effective, graduated/massed exposure, develop narrative of traumatic event, challenge maladaptive beliefs, increase positive coping skills, increase social support

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medication

SSRIs, medications against anxiety and panic

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ACEs

Adverse Childhood Experiences

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three types of ACEs

abuse, neglect, household dysfunction

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PRACTICE P

psychoeducation & parenting skills

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R

Relaxation techniques

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A

Affective expression & modulation

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C

cognitive coping

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T

trauma narrative & processing

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I

In vivo mastery of trauma reminders

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C2

Conjoint parent-child session

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E

Enhancing future safety & development

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adjustment disorders

anxious or depressive reactions to life stress, milder than PTSD/acute stress disorder, occur in reaction to life stressor, clinically significant distress or impairment

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excessive use

impaired control

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use despite wanting to stop

impaired control

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spending great deal of time using or recovering

impaired control

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craving, especially when around triggers

impaired control

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failure to fulfill obligations

social impairment

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interpersonal problems caused by drug use

social impairment

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giving up important social, recreational, or occupational activities

social impairment

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use when intoxication endangers self or others

risky use

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use despite substance-induced health problems

risky use

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tolerance

needing more drug to feel effects

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withdrawal

negative symptoms experienced when drug is removed after prolonged intake

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increase DA in the reward pathway initially

addictive drugs

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highly correlated with "high"

Dopamine in striatum

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reduced in drug abusers

dopamine (D2) receptors

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cell adhesion molecules

genes in GWAS addicts

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receptors and ligands

genes in GWAS addicts

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intracellular enzymes

genes in GWAS addicts

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double risk of addiction

mood and anxiety disorders

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low reward-setpoint

more vulnerable to addiction

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increases risk of addiction

untreated ADHD

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impulsivity

highly correlated with nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis addictions

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impulsive at baseline

use stimulants, which make them more impulsive

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pain-sensitive at baseline

use opiates

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anxious at baseline

take more alcohol

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cultural norms

environmental effects for development of addiction

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socioeconomic status

environmental effects for development of addiction

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sources of stress in the environment

environmental effects for development of addiction

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stress-coping strategies and expectations

environmental effects for development of addiction

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affects dopamine receptor expression

environment

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pharmacological treatments for addiction

block drug associated reward or alleviate negative symptoms of withdrawal

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behavioral therapies for addiction

train patients to recognize/deal with cravings, find reasons/motivations to avoid substance use

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Therapeutic communities and self-help groups

TROSA/AA

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structured safe environment with sober peers, limits on behavioral choice, graded return to freedom

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neurodevelopmental disorder

ASD

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mechanisms in place in prenatal development

ASD

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presents with differences in brain anatomy and function

ASD

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behavioral presentation early in life

ASD

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presentation evolves over time

ASD

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development impacts many areas of development and produces an atypical trajectory across most domains

ASD

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Kanner (1943)

"autistic disturbances of affective contact"

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'early infantile autism'

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'Kanner's syndrome'

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Asperger (1944)

Germany, WWII, merged with Lorna Wing "Asperger's Syndrome: A Clinical Account"

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Behavioral phenotype of ASD

heterogeneous, neurodevelopmental disorder with lifelong course of illness

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Percent of world population with ASD

1%

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number of children with ASD in US

1 out of 44

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four times more common in boys than in girls

ASD

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prevalence has increased by 6-15% each year from 2002 to 2010

ASD

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deficits in social-emotional reciprocity

DSM-5 ASD social communication

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deficits in nonverbal communication behaviors used for social interaction

DSM-5 ASD social communication

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