EKG Anatomy Vocabulary

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anatomy

the study of the structures of the body

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physiology

the study of how various systems of the body work

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homeostasis

a state of balance and stability within the systems of the body

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metabolism

physical and chemical processes carried out by the body systems to maintain homeostasis

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plasma

the liquid portion of blood

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formed elements

the solid portion of blood

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erythrocytes

red blood cells; contain the protein hemoglobin that carries oxygen in the blood

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leukocytes

white blood cells; capable of producing antibodies and destroying pathogens

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thrombocytes

part of the formed elements of blood that play a role in blood clotting; also called platelets

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hemoglobin

a protein that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide into the blood

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arteries

blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

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oxygen-rich blood

blood that returns to the heart from the lungs after receiving oxygen and is then pumped throughout the body; also called oxygenated blood

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capillaries

the smallest blood vessels, they carry oxygen and nutrients to and remove carbon dioxide and wastes from cells throughout the body

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veins

blood vessels that carry bloody toward the heart

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oxygen-depleted blood

blood that is returned to the heart through veins after supplying oxygen to the rest of the body and is then pumped to the lungs to receive oxygen again; also called deoxygenated blood

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diaphragm

a muscle that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdomen

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pharynx

an area of the throat behind the mouth and nasal cavity

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larynx

an organ that induces the vocal cords and allows air to pass into the trachea

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trachea

the tube that goes from the larynx to the bronchi, allowing air to pass to the lungs; also called the windpipe

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bronchi

the two tubes that take air to the lungs; singular is bronchus

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bronchioles

smaller branches from the bronchi; tubes that carry air further into the lungs, reaching the air sacs (alveoli)

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alveoli

the air sacs in the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged

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stimuli

changes that can cause a response in the body

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central nervous system (CNS)

the part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and the spinal cord

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peripheral nervous system (PNS)

part of the nervous system made up of the nerves that extend throughout the body

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somatic nervous system

division of the PNS that controls voluntary actions

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autonomic nervous system

part of the nervous system that controls body functions that are NOT consciously directed

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sympathetic nervous system

part of the autonomic nervous system that works to increase heart rate; can be associated with fear or threat, as in the fight or flight response

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parasympathetic nervous system

part of the autonomic nervous system that works to slow heart rate

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epicardium

the outermost layer of the heart; a thin layer of connective tissue that protects the heart and also contains the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart (coronary arteries)

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myocardium

the middle and thickest layer of the heart; made up of cells capable of rhythmic contraction

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endocardium

the thin, innermost layer of the heart; forms a smooth, elastic surface that allows blood to flow without stopping or clotting

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superior vena cava

one of the largest veins in the body; returns oxygen depleted blood from the UPPER body to the heart

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inferior vena cava

one of the largest veins in the body; returns oxygen depleted blood from the LOWER body to the heart

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aorta

the body's largest artery, which branches off into the body's smaller arteries to distribute oxygen-rich blood

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coronary arteries

the arteries that provide oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the heart

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septum

in cardiology, the wall dividing the right and left sides of the heart

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atria

the two UPPER chambers of the heart (singular atrium)

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ventricles

the two LOWER chambers of the heart

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systole

the phase in which the heart is at work, contracting and pushing blood out of the left ventricle

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diastole

phase when the heart relaxes or rests

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tricuspid valve

the heart valve located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; also called the right atrioventricular valve

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pulmonary valvle

the heart valve located between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery; also called the pulmonary semilunar valve

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bicuspid valve

the heart valve located between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery; also called the aortic semilunar valve

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pulmonary circuit

the circulation of blood between the heart and lungs

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systemic circuit

the circulation of blood between the heart and the rest of the body (except the lungs)

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exchange sites

places in the body where oxygen and substances needed by the cells are delivered and waste products removed

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coronary sulcus

crown of the heart

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coronary crux

crossroads on back

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ischemic

dead

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