AP Human Geo Unit 3 Gradesavers

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culture

all of a group's learned behaviors, actions, beliefs, and traditions

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cultural traits

the visible and invisible elements of a culture

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cultural complex

series of interrelated cultural traits

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cultural hearth

The area in which a unique culture or a specific trait develops

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taboos

behaviors that are heavily discouraged by a culture

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Traditional Culture

Passing down long-held beliefs, values, and practices and are generally resistant to rapid changes in their culture. Used to encompass all three cultural designations.

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folk culture

The beliefs and practices of small, homogenous groups of people, often living in rural areas that are relatively isolated and slow to change

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popular culture

when cultural traits spread over a large area and are adopted by various groups

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global culture

When elements of popular culture are adopted worldwide

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indigenous community

communities that live within geographically distinct traditional habitats or ancestral territories who identify themselves as being apart of a distinct group

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urbanization

the movement of people or cultures to towns and cities

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globalization

the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to where they become global in scale and impact

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material culture

physical objects and belongings of members of a group of people

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artifacts

the material manifestations of a culture

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mentifacts

the elements of a culture that express values and beliefs

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non-material culture

non-physical ideas that people have about their culture

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sociofacts

the institutions and links between individuals and groups that unite a culture

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architecture

the act of designing and constructing buildings

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cultural landscape

visible reflection if the culture of built environment

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traditional architecture

a style that reflects a local culture's history, beliefs, values, and community adaptations that typically utilize locally available resources

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post modern architecture

a movement away from boxy, mostly concrete or brick structures toward high rise structures made from steel or glass and the use of bright colors, curves, and atriums are also common

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land-use patterns

the use of land for various purposes or activities

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linguistic characteristics

the features of a language

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gender

the difference between men and women

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religion

a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny

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ethnic neighborhood

usually in the urban areas are occupied by migrants in a charter groups former space

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diaspora

a population that is scattered across a region which are separate from its place of origin

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christianity

a monotheistic religion that is based on the life and teachings of Jesus

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islam

a monotheistic faith of the muslims that is based on mahammed and the prophet of allah

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buddhism

a religion represented by the many groups that profess various forms of the buddhist doctrine

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sikhism

a monotheistic religion founded in northern india by guru nanak combining elements of Hinduism and Islam

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hinduism

the monotheistic religion of most people in india, bangladesh, sri lanka, and nepal that is based around karma that works closely with a caste system

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judaism

a monotheistic faith of jews who practice a religion based on the torah and the talmud

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sequent occupancy

successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place to contribute to the cumulative cultural landscape

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cultural relativism

the concept that a person's or group's beliefs, values, norms, and practices should be understood from the perspective of the other group's culture

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ethnocentrism

belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group

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ethnicity

membership in a group if people who share characteristics such as ancestry, language, customs, history, and common experiences

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sense of place

state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character

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placemaking

used as an urban planning practice to motivate people to get involved with the spaces closest to them

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centripetal force

those that unify a group of people or a region

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centrifugal force

those that divide a group of people or a region

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relocation diffusion

the spread of culture and or cultural traits by people who migrate and carry their cultural traits with them

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expansion diffusion

the spread of culture and or cultural traits outward through exchange without migration

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contagious diffusion

occurs when a cultural trait spreads continuously outward from its hearth through contact among people

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hierarchical diffusion

the spread of diffusion outward from the most interconnected places or from centers of wealth and influence

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reverse hierarchical diffusion

when a cultural trait diffuses from a group of lower status to a group of higher status

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stimulus diffusion

when an underlying idea from a cultural hearth is adopted by another culture but the adopting group modifies or rejects one trait

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creolization

he process by which elements of different cultures are blended together to create a new culture

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lingua franca

a common language used by speakers of different languages

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colonialism

a particular type of imperialism in which people move and settle on the land of another country

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imperialism

includes a variety of ways of influencing another country or group of people by direct conquest, economic control, or cultural dominance

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indigenous language

a language that is spoken by the original, aboriginal, first, first nation, native, ethnic, or island inhabitants of a place, area, or region

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social constructs

are ideas, concepts, or perceptions that have been created and accepted by people in a society or a social group and are not created by nature

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time-space convergence

the greater interconnections between places that results from improvements in transportation

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cultural convergence

cultures are becoming similar to each other and sharing more cultural traits, ideas, and beliefs

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cultural divergence

the idea that a culture may change over time as the elements of distance, time, physical separation, and modern technology create divisions and changes

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language family

a group of different languages that all descend from a particular common language

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dialect

the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people

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islogloss

the boundaries between variations in pronunciation or word usage

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indo-european language family

a large group of languages that might have descended from a language spoken nearly 6000 years ago

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universalizing religion

seeks converts to its faith regardless of their ethnicity, language, social status, or nationality

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ethnic religion

belief traditions that emphasize strong cultural characteristics among their followers

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polytheistic

having many gods

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monotheistic

believing that there is only one god

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acculturation

the process of a group moving to a new area and adopting the values and practices of the larger group that has received them while still maintaining valuable elements of their own culture

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assimilation

when an ethnic group can no longer be distinguished from the receiving group

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syncretism

the fusion or blending of two distinctive cultural traits into a unique new hybrid trait

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multiculturalism

the coexistence of several cultures in one society with the ideal of all cultures being valued and worthy of study

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nativism

policy of protecting the interests of native-born

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cultural appropriation

the process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit

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Indigenous Culture

When members of an ethnic group reside in their ancestral lands, and typically possess unique cultural traits

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