health science unit 10

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CNS

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111 Terms

1

CNS

Brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System

Cranial and spinal nerves

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Autonomic Nervous System

Peripheral nerves and ganglia

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CNS

Responsible for communication and coordination system of the body; Center of intellect and reasoning

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5

Brain

3 lbs mass of nervous tissue; Dividing into 4 parts

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Cerebrum

Largest part of the brain; Responsible for higher level of thinking

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Myelin sheath

Protects axon; Sends faster impulse; On white matter

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Frontal Lobe

Motor area that controls voluntary muscles; Speech area is located in L hemisphere

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Parietal Lobe

Sensory area that receives and intercepts messages from the pain, touch, heat, and cold receptors;Helps in determining perception

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Occipital Lobe

Controls vision and eyesight

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Temporal Lobe

Auditory and olfactory areas; hear and smell

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12

Dura Mater

Outer brain covering, lines inside of skull; Tough, dense fibrous connective tissue

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Subdural Space

Between dura and arachnoid space

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Arachnoid

Middle layer; Resembles fine cobweb

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Pia Mater

Covers the brain surface, made of blood vessels held together by connective tissue

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Subarachnoid Space

Between arachnoid space and pia mater, filled with CSF

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Cerebral Spinal Fluid

Acts as a shock absorber and source of nutrients; Bathes brain and spinal cord

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18

cerebral ventricles

Brain contains 4 cavities filled with CSF

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Choroid Plexus

Network of blood vessels lining ventricles which help in formation of CSF

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20

Blood Brain Barrier

Choroid plexus capillaries prevent substances from pentrating brain tissue--this makes infections like meningitis difficult to cure

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21

Lumbar Puncture

Removal of CSF from spinal canal--Needle puncture between 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae

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22

Limbic System

Located in the center of the brain; Encircles the top of the brain stem

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23

Diencephalon

Thalamus--spherical mass of gray matter; deep in cerebral hemisphere; Controls consciousness

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Hypothalamus

Lies below the thalamus, part of limbic system

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Pineal

Endocrine system gland; effects mood depending on light

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Pituitary Gland

Endocrine system gland

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Hypothalamus

ANS; Temp. Control; Appetite Control; Emotional State; Sleep control

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Cerbellum

Located behind the pons below the cerebrum; Controls all body functions related to skeletal muscles; Balance, Muscle Tone, Coordination, Muscles Movement

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Brain Stem

Pathway from brain to body; Made of pons, medulla, and mid brain; Pathway for ascending and descending tracts of nerve pathways

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Pons

In front of cerebellum, between midbrain and medulla- Contains center that controls respiration

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Midbrain

Visions and hearing

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Medulla Oblongata

Bulb-shaped structure between pons and spinal cord; Inside that cranium above foramen magnum; Responsible for heart rate and blood pressure

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33

Neuron

Transmits a message from one cell to the next; Nerve cell

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Dendrites

Carries impulse to cell body; May be one or many

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Axon

Carries impulse away from cell body; Only one on a neuron

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Neurilemma

Myelin Sheath; Covering that speeds up the nerve impulse along the axon

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Synapse

Space between neurons, messages go from on cell to the next

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Nerve Impulse

A stimulus creates an impulse, travels into the neuron on the dendrite and out on the axon, neurotransmitter released that carries impulse across the synapse to the next dendrite

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Spinal Cord

Begins at foramen magnum and continues down to 2nd lumbar vertebrae; White and soft, in spinal canal; Surrounded by CSF; Reflex center; Pathway to and from brain

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40

Peripheral Nervous System

All the nerves of the body and ganglia; ANS is a specialized part of the PNS

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41

Spinal Nerves

Originate at the spinal cord and go through opening in the vertebrae; 31 pairs; Named in relation to location

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42

Cranial Nerves

Begin in the brain; 12 pairs of cranial nerves; Designated by number and name

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43

Autonomic Nervous System

Regulates activities of visceral organs; All body organs we can't control

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Sympathetic Nervous System

The fight or flight system; When body perceives danger, SNS sends message to adrenal medulla to secrete adrenaline- heart beat increases

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Parasympathetic Nervous System

This counters effects of SNS, and decreases heart rate

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Somatic Nervous System

Nerves located along spinal cord; Connect skeleton, muscles and joints to the brain

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47

Meningitis

Inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord; May be bacterial or viral; Fever and stiff neck; May lead to paralysis and death; Antibiotics

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Encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain caused by chemicals or virus; Extreme weakness and visual disturbance

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Cerebral Palsy

Disturbance in voluntary muscular activity caused by brain damage; Spastic paralysis due to birth inquiry

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50

Poliomyelitis

;Virus; Rarely seen in US since 50's; Disease of nerve pathways causes paralysis; Vaccine available; One of biggest cause of death in the past

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Epilepsy

Seizure disorder of the brain, characterized by recurring and excessive discharge from neurons; Seizures believed to be result of spontaneous uncontrolled activity of neurons; Uncertain cause

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Grand Mal

Severe conclusive seizure

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Petit Mal

Milder (Staring into space)

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54

Alzheimers

Progressive disease; Begins with memory problems

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Hydrocephalus

Increase in volume of CSF in the ventricles of the brain caused by a blockage in the 3rd or 4th ventricle; Leads to enlarged head; Can cause mental impairment; Shunt used to drain

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Parkinson's Disease

Characterized by symptoms of shuffles gait and trembling; May be caused by decrease in neurotransmitter- dopamine; Can be caused by constant hits to the head

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Multiple Sclerosis

Occurs when the myelin sheath around the axon is destroyed; Slows nerve impulses causing loss of muscle coordination; Immune response attacks and destroys myelin

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Cerebral Vascular Accident

Stroke; Interruption of blood and oxygen to brain; Tissue death; 3rd leading cause of death; Smoking, hypertension, heart disease, family history; 90% caused by blood clots- lodge in arteries blocking blood flow to the brain; 10% caused by rupture

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59

West Nile Virus

Disease process in subtropical areas; Vector borne; Flu-like symptoms; Warm areas, no cure; Treat symptoms

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60

arach

spider

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cephal

head

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cerebell

cerebellum

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cerebr

cerebrum

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crani

skull

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encephalo

brain

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endo

within

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esthesia

sensation, feeling

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graph

instrument used to record an image

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69

hemi

half

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hydro

water

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mening

membrane covering the brain

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72

myel

spinal cord

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neuro

nerve

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74

oid

like, resemble

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pleg

paralysis

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psych

mind

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us

structure

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78

Blood-brain barrier

inability of some substances to penetrate the brain tissue

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79

Cerebral Ventricles

four cavities within the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid

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80

Convolutions

elevated folds on the surface of the cerebrum that increase the surface area of the brain

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81

CVA

cerebrovascular accident; stroke

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82

dementia

loss in at least two areas of complex behaviors

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83

fight or flight response

body perceives danger and prepares to run away or stand and fight; heart rate increases, mouth becomes dry, and pupils and bronchi dilate

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gyri

convolutions in the brain

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85

lumbar puncture

a needle is inserted between two vertebrae to remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid

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86

Neurotransmitter

a chemical messenger that carries, boosts, and balances signals between neurons (ex. Acetylcholine)

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Paralysis

the loss of the ability to move (and sometimes to feel anything) in part or most of the body, typically as a result of illness, poison, or injury

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stimulus

something that can elicit or evoke a physiological response in a cell, a tissue, or an organism

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89

foramen magnum

Where does the spinal cord begin?

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90

associative

neuron that sends information between sensory and motor neurons

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91

interneurons

another word for associatve neurons

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92

motor

neurons that send information from central nervous system back to body

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93

longitudinal fissure

Deep groove that divides cerebrum

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94

temporal

hearing, facial recognition

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parietal

pain, touch, heat, and cold

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frontal

emotions, personality, morality, intellect, speech, smell

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diencephalon

located between cerebrum and midbrain

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98

limbic system

located in the center of the brain

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99

limbic system

surrounds the brain stem

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limbic system

includes the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala

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