Skeletal System

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fxs of the skeletal sys

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1

fxs of the skeletal sys

  1. support body

  2. protect organs

  3. movement

  4. blood formation (bone marrow)

  5. mineral storage and balance

  6. detoxification (remove metals from blood and slowly release them)

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4 components of the skeletal system

  1. blood

  2. cartilage

  3. tendons

  4. ligaments

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factors that affect bone growth

  1. genes

  2. nutrition

  3. exercise

  4. mineral deposition

  5. mineral resorption

  6. vitamins

  7. hormones

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4

most common type of bone in the body

long bones

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diaphysis

shaft of a long bone

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epiphysis

end of a long bone. expanded to provide extra SA for ligaments and tendons to attach

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metaphysis

space between diaphysis and epiphysis

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epiphyseal line

line that forms when bone growth stops and compact bone grows into epiphyseal plate

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periosteum

tough connective sheath that covers outer surface of all bones. protects bones and anchors BVs and nerves to outer surface of bone

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medullary cavity

hollow cylinder inside the diaphysis. contains bone marrow.

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-oste-

bone

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-physis

growth

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-phys-

grow

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-por-

opening

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-clast

break down

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meta-

beyond, after, subsequent to

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classes of joints

  1. fibrous joints

  2. cartilaginous joints

  3. synovial joints

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fibrous joints

2 bones tightly bound with no joint space

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cartilaginous joints

join 2 bones with cartilage

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synovial joints

join 2 bones with fibrocartilage

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bursa

extension of synovial joint that forms a cushion that would otherwise rub against each other

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articul-

joint

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gomph-

bolt, nail

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-chondr-

cartilage

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-desm-

bind

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-ation

process

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-ate

pertaining to

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-ar

pertaining to

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flexion

bending

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extension

straightening

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abduction

movement away from midline

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adduction

movement towards midline

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prone

lying facedown

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supine

lying face up

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pronation

rotate forearm so palm faces the floor

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supination

rotate forearm so palm faces upward

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-duct-

lead

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pronat-

bend down

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supinat-

bend backward

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40

axial skeleton

  1. vertebral column

  2. skull

  3. rib cage

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frontal bone

forehead

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parietal bones

bulging sides and roof of cranium

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occipital bone

back and base of head

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temporal bones

2 sides and part of base

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sphenoid bone

part of base and the orbits

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ethmoid bone

part of nose and orbits. is hollow for sinuses.

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the skull bones are joined by ____

sutures

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maxillary bones

upper jaw, hold upper teeth

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palatine bones

behind maxilla

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zygomatic bones

cheekbones

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lacrimal bones

medial wall of eye orbit

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nasal bones

sides and bridges of nose

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vomer bone

separates nasal cavity

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nasal conchae

fragile bones in lower nasal cavity

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mandible

lower jawbone. holds lower teeth.

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ethm-

sieve

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lacrim-

tears

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occipit-

back of head

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sphen-

wedge

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zygomat-

cheekbone

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acrom-

acromion

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carp-

bones of the wrist

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-condyle

knuckle

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uln-

forearm bone

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pelvic girdle fxs

  1. supports axial skeleton

  2. transmits body's weight to lower limbs

  3. provides attachment to lower limbs

  4. protects internal organs

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labrum

cartilage that forms a rim around the socket of a joint. cushions joint and keeps head of femur in place

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femor-

femur

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isch/i

ischium

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pelv-

pelvis

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pub-

pubis

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ili-

ilium

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4 bones of knee

  1. femur

  2. tibia

  3. patella

  4. fibula

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calcaneus

heelbone

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talus

most superior of 7 tarsal bones of ankle and proximal foot

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calcan-

calcaneus

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-tars-

ankle

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tars-

tarsus

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meta-

behind

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osteoporosis

abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium

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ostopenia

low bone density

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osteomyelitis

inflammation of an area of bone due to bacterial infection

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osteomalacia

disease caused by vitamin D deficiency

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achondroplasia

occurs when long bones stop growing in childhood. but bones of axial skeleton aren't affected

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most common malignant bone tumor

osteogenic sarcoma

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osteogenesis imperfecta

rare genetic disorder, producing brittle bones that easily fracture

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fract-

break

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comminut-

break into small pieces

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-placed

in an area

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-stick

branch, twig

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-pact-

driven in

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-complete

fill in

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line-

a mark

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spir-

a coil

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-verse

travel

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-ure

result of

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-ed

pertaining to

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osteoarthritis

caused by breakdown and eventual destruction of cartilage in a joint

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rheumatoid arthritis

affects synovial membrane that lines joints and tendons

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bursitis

inflammation of a bursa that can result from overuse of a joint

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burs-

bursa

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