Western Civilization Honors

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The Age of Exploration was a period of...?.

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1

The Age of Exploration was a period of...?.

Strong Government, new technology, and more trade

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2

Age or Exploration

A period of extensive overseas exploration from mid-to-late 1400s through the early 1600s

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3

Who are the first countries to start conquering land?

Spain and Portugual

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4

Who/What were Spain and Portugal motivated by?

God (spread religion), Gold (increase wealth) and Glory

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5

Christopher Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)

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6

Who was Christopher Columbus financed by?

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain

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7

The first Spanish conquest

Aztecs

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8

Secularism

the process of becoming more concerned with material, worldly, temporal things and less with spiritual and religious things; a characteristic of the Italian Renaissance

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9

Humanism

A movement known for its focus on human achievements and the Greek and Roman classics

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10

Individualism

Emphasizes the unique traits of each person

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11

Renaissance years

1350-1550

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12

Contributions of Germany to the Renaissance

The printing press (spread of the Bible)

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13

Contributions of Spain to the Renaissance

Arts patronage and land expansion

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14

Contributions of France to the Renaissance

Architecture and blended style

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15

The Portuguese traveled where for trade...?

Far east

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16

Prince Henry the Navigator

(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.

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17

The school for navigators leads to.....?

Ships going south looking for gold on the African Coast, the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade

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18

Bartholemeu Dias

Attempts to round Cape of Good Hope

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19

Vasco de Gama

Successfully reaches India

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20

Spanish go across the ___________________?

Atlantic Ocean

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21

Conquistadors

Spanish conquerors

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22

Who conquered the Incas?

Francisco Pizarro

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23

The Incan people were........?

Great builders of roads and bridges

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24

Atahualpa

Incan ruler

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25

What does Pizarro bring with him into the Incan Empire?

Weapons, gunpowder, and horses

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26

Who conquered the Aztecs?

Hernan Cortes

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27

Montezuma II

Aztec emperor

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28

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

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29

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

A trading system in which goods and humans moved between the colonies, Africa and England. Provided labor on colonial plantations.

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30

Mercantilism

The economy and trade are essential to the health and safety of the nation

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31

The Colonial Class System

Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos/Mulattos, Native Indians/Black Slaves

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32

Father Bartolome de Las Casas

critiques Spanish treatment of the natives

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33

Middle Passage

A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies

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34

Mercator Projection

a map projection of the earth onto a cylinder

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35

Martin Luther

a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.

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36

Why did Martin Luther become a monk?

He survived a thunderstorm

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37

Martin Luther struggled with......?

Scrupulosity

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38

Scrupulosity

The habit of imagining sin when none exists, or grave sin when the matter is not serious.

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39

Indulgences

Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.

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40

Who was the pope during the Reformation?

Pope Leo X

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41

95 Theses

A list of 95 issues Luther had with the Church

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42

King Henry VIII

Started the Anglican Church because he wasn't granted a divorce. Was excommunicated by the Pope.

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43

Act of Supremacy

Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.

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44

Treason Act 1534

act that said it was punishable by death to deny that the king was the sole head of the church

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45

after King Henry VIII

Edward VI

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46

After Edward VI of England dies at the age of 16, the crown passes to his oldest sister who wanted to return to Catholicism. She burned more than 300 Protestants at the stake which earned her the nickname, "_______ _______."

Bloody Mary

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47

Iconoclasm

Opposing or even destroying images, especially those set up for religious veneration in the belief that such images represent idol worship.

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48

John Calvin

religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society

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49

Predestination

Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.

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50

Huguenots

French Calvinists

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51

Savonarola

A Dominican friar who decried money and power

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52

Savonarola was against.....?

Humanism

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53

What was the response to the Protestant Reformation?

Catholic Reformation

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54

Council of Trent

A meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers.

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55

Major reforms made with the Council of Trent

Bishops in the diocese, priest educated in scripture, clerical celibacy, and reformations of old orders

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56

The reformation ended what practice?

Selling indulgences

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57

Tudors

English royal family, dynasty founded by Henry VII; includes some of England's most influential monarchs; Elizabeth

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58

Ferdinand II

Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia and Hungary who waged war against Protestant forces (1578-1637)

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59

Peace of Augsburg

1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler

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60

Treaty of Westphalia

Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic

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61

Philip II of Spain

The son of Charles V who later became husband to Mary I and king of Spain and Portugal. He supported the Counter Reformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England (1527-1598) He was a intolerant, Catholic king.

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62

St. Batholomew's Day Massacre (1572)

Catholics attack Protestants; 3,000 dead in Paris, 20,000 dead outside of the city

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63

Four Pillars of Spanish Power

New World Riches, Increased Population, Efficient Bureaucracy and Military, and Supremacy in the Mediterranean

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64

Dutch Revolt

This was the revolt by the Netherland against the Spanish in order to create their independent state

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65

Enlightenment

A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.

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66

Enlightenment years

1650-1800

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67

Nicklaus Copernicus

The heliocentric, or sun-centered, theory was proposed by

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68

Tycho Brahe

Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data. Rejected Copernicus's of heliocentrism.

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69

Johannes Kepler

Proved that the planets move in an elliptical orbit, mathematically proved Copernicus's theory

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70

Galileo

Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars

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71

Rene Descartes

17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle "i think therefore i am"; believed mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism

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72

Deism

A popular Enlightenment era belief that there is a God, but that God isn't involved in people's lives or in revealing truths to prophets.

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73

Atheism

Belief that there is no god.

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74

Materialism

attention to worldly things and neglect of spiritual needs

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75

Philosophes

18th century writers who stressed reason and advocated freedom of expression, religious toleration, and a reformed legal system. Leading philosophes such as Voltaire fought irrational prejudice and believed that society should be open to people of talent.

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76

Bluestocking

Early feminist group that came from British salons and advocated to women's rights for education

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77

Louis XIV

(1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.

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78

Absolute Monarch

A king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society

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79

Absolute Monarchy

A system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power

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80

Rule by divine right

rule based on the theory that a monarch's right to rule comes from God

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81

Edict of Fountainbleu

revoked Edict of Nantes- Huguenots lost right to practice Calvinism and fled

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82

The Frondes

French political upheavals between 1648 and 1653 aimed at challenging the power of the king; last serious attempt to limit the power of the king until the French Revolution

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83

Boyars

Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts, attached to Russian culture

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84

Great Embassy

trip taken by Peter the Great to explore Europe and bring back knowledge and reform Russia

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85

Peter Romanov the Great

After becoming czar will take a trip to western Europe, and return determined to "westernize" Europe - will develop architecture, education, social practices and fashion similar to those of the W. European nations.

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86

Streltsi

A large number of soldiers in Moscow who were primarily the palace guards. Opposed to reform and any threat to their own power

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87

The Great Fear

The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives, rumors that the feudal aristocracy were sending hired brigand to attack peasants and pillage their land

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88

Night session of August 4th

Second estate gave up their nobility privileges although they had already lost them; everyone is now equal

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89

Meritocracy (part of Night Session)

A form of government where people are chosen based on their ability (political office); few people are in charge

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90

Sans-culottes

In the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages

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91

Jacobins (Radicals)

The people involved in a radical political organization called the Jacobin. Maximilien Robespierre was the Jacobin leader, responsible for the Reign of Terror

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92

De-Christianization

During the Terror, The Catholic Church was linked to real or potential counter-revolutions. Religion was linked with the Ancient Regime, and Superstition, and so the Committee of Public Safety enacted measures to reduce its influence. IT included: New Calendar, aboloishment of Religious holidays, new names for months, 7-day weeks replaced with 10-day decades.

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93

Backlash to the De-Christianization Program

It alienated most of the population, Robespierre never supported it (persuaded The Convention to reaffirm the principle of religious toleration)

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94

Marie Antoinette is executed (Date)

October 1793

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95

Bourgeoisie Phase (Years)

1789-1792

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96

Radical Phase (Years)

1791-1794

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97

The Peasant Revolt (Date)

July 20, 1789

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98

Dechristianization Years

1793-1794

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99

Night Session (Date)

August 4, 1789

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100

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

August 26, 1789

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