Semester 1 - Review US History

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What were the causes of the American Revolution?

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1

What were the causes of the American Revolution?

The French & Indian War, Proclamation of 1763, Intolerable Acts, Stamp Act, taxation w/o Representation in Parliament, Boston Massacre

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Intolerable Acts

In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses.

<p>In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop&apos;s in barns and empty houses.</p>
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3

john adam

A Massachusetts attorney & politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. He served as the second President of the United States.

<p>A Massachusetts attorney &amp; politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. He served as the second President of the United States.</p>
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Samuel Adams

He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty. He is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party...

<p>He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty. He is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party...</p>
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5

Ben Franklin

American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor. During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists.

<p>American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor. During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists.</p>
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King George III

He was the king of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies than had many of his predecessors. Colonists were torn between loyalty to the king and resistance to acts carried out in his name. Was considered a tyrant king.

<p>He was the king of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies than had many of his predecessors. Colonists were torn between loyalty to the king and resistance to acts carried out in his name. Was considered a tyrant king.</p>
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7

Thomas Jefferson

He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

<p>He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.</p>
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8

Thomas Paine

Patriot and writer whose pamphlet Common Sense, published in 1776, convinced many Americans that it was time to declare independence from Britain. He also wrote The American Crisis to urge colonists to join the fight against the British.

<p>Patriot and writer whose pamphlet Common Sense, published in 1776, convinced many Americans that it was time to declare independence from Britain. He also wrote The American Crisis to urge colonists to join the fight against the British.</p>
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George Washington

Commander of the Continental Army. He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.

<p>Commander of the Continental Army. He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.</p>
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10

Lexington and Concord

A 1775 conflict between colonial minutemen & British soldiers attempting to take the colonists' large store of arms; began the Revolutionary War, On April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston.

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11

Saratoga

The battle which was the turning point of the Revolution because after the colonists won this major victory, the French decided to support the Americans with money, troops, ships, etc.

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Yorktown

Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.

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13

Valley Forge

Washington and troops were low on supplies, food, and clothing. Because it was a harsh winter, 1/5 of soldiers died. Name given to the 1777-1778 encampment at Valley Forge by the American military under General Washington. It was America's first real effort to field a professional military against the British.

<p>Washington and troops were low on supplies, food, and clothing. Because it was a harsh winter, 1/5 of soldiers died. Name given to the 1777-1778 encampment at Valley Forge by the American military under General Washington. It was America&apos;s first real effort to field a professional military against the British.</p>
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14

Treaty of Paris of 1783

This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.

<p>This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.</p>
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15

Loyalist

A person who supported the British during the American Revolution

<p>A person who supported the British during the American Revolution</p>
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16

Propaganda

material distributed by those in favor of a specific cause and reflecting their point of view, Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.

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17

Patriot

A person who supported the colonists during the American Revolution, a colonist who wanted to break free from Britain's rule

<p>A person who supported the colonists during the American Revolution, a colonist who wanted to break free from Britain&apos;s rule</p>
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18

First Continental Congress

September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts

<p>September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts</p>
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Second Continental Congress

They organized the Continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence.

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20

Continental Army

Army formed by the Second Continental Congress and led by General George Washington

<p>Army formed by the Second Continental Congress and led by General George Washington</p>
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21

Common Sense

A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation.

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22

Sons of Liberty

a group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose British policies at the time of the American Revolution.

<p>a group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose British policies at the time of the American Revolution.</p>
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Ally

a country that agrees to help another country achieve a common goal, ie. American Revolution - French were allies.

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24

Boston Massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.

<p>British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.</p>
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Representation in Parliament

Colonists felt that the laws and taxes passed by the British were unfair because they had no____________________.

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26

What were the strengths of the British?

They had a strong well-trained army and navy along with a strong central government with food, ammunition and the support of colonial loyalists and Native Americans.

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Declaration of Independence

The document written by Thomas Jefferson and approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.

<p>The document written by Thomas Jefferson and approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.</p>
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28

Paul Revere

American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)

<p>American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)</p>
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Marquis de Lafayette

He was very rich and noble when he arrived in America at the age of 19 years old. He believed in the liberty that the Americans were fighting for and asked to help. He became a general on Washington's staff and fought hard. He was known as "the soldier's friend," and is buried in france but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill.

<p>He was very rich and noble when he arrived in America at the age of 19 years old. He believed in the liberty that the Americans were fighting for and asked to help. He became a general on Washington&apos;s staff and fought hard. He was known as &quot;the soldier&apos;s friend,&quot; and is buried in france but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill.</p>
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boycott

to refuse to buy items from a particular country. The colonists upheld a __________against British goods.

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minutemen

Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in a minute.

<p>Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in a minute.</p>
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natural rights stated in the Declaration of Independence

life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness

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Quartering Act

March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.

<p>March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.</p>
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34

Spain and France

supported the colonist's war for independence; were allies of the colonists

<p>supported the colonist&apos;s war for independence; were allies of the colonists</p>
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35

American Revolution

The spreading of ideas of Independence, brought on by the enlightenment philosophers, also helped to spark the French Revolution.

<p>The spreading of ideas of Independence, brought on by the enlightenment philosophers, also helped to spark the French Revolution.</p>
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Parliament

body of government in Great Britain, acts as both the executive and legislative.

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37

French and Indian War

due to the costly war, the king began taxing the colonists which led to a lot of tension between Britain and the colonists

<p>due to the costly war, the king began taxing the colonists which led to a lot of tension between Britain and the colonists</p>
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38

Boston Tea Party

Colonists (mostly smugglers and the Sons of Liberty) angry over the enforcement of (lower) taxes on tea protested by throwing the tea into the harbor. They dressed up as Indians and caused millions of $$$ in damages.

<p>Colonists (mostly smugglers and the Sons of Liberty) angry over the enforcement of (lower) taxes on tea protested by throwing the tea into the harbor. They dressed up as Indians and caused millions of $$$ in damages.</p>
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39

Proclamation of 1763

The British king forbade the colonists from moving into lands west of the Appalachian mountains

<p>The British king forbade the colonists from moving into lands west of the Appalachian mountains</p>
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40

Tea Act

Tax on all British tea

<p>Tax on all British tea</p>
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Stamp Act

a tax on all printed materials - Really angered the colonists because it was a tax on everything.

<p>a tax on all printed materials - Really angered the colonists because it was a tax on everything.</p>
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42

Americanization

This process was designed to make immigrants more "Americanized". It included learning to dress, speak, and act like other Americans. This was done through the schools.

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Assimilation

is the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group.

<p>is the process by which a person or a group&apos;s language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group.</p>
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44

Andrew Carnegie

This man was the founder of the Carnegie Steel Company & promoted philanthropy among wealthy industrialists known as the Gospel of Wealth.

<p>This man was the founder of the Carnegie Steel Company &amp; promoted philanthropy among wealthy industrialists known as the Gospel of Wealth.</p>
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45

Bessemer Process

Used by Andrew Carnegie, made the production of steel more efficient, allowing for mass production.

<p>Used by Andrew Carnegie, made the production of steel more efficient, allowing for mass production.</p>
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46

Big Business

During the Gilded Age, the economy saw a rise in this, often seen as more efficient and could produce products cheaply but also as unfair competition and controlled the government

<p>During the Gilded Age, the economy saw a rise in this, often seen as more efficient and could produce products cheaply but also as unfair competition and controlled the government</p>
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47

Chinese Exclusion Act

This was the first law (1882) to limit the immigration of a specific group.

<p>This was the first law (1882) to limit the immigration of a specific group.</p>
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48

Dawes Act

authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.

<p>authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.</p>
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49

Gilded Age

Mark Twain coined this phrase to represent an era where things look good on the outside but are not really that good.

<p>Mark Twain coined this phrase to represent an era where things look good on the outside but are not really that good.</p>
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Homestead Act

This act motivated more Americans to settle in the west by promising 160 acres in exchange for cultivating the land for 5 years.

<p>This act motivated more Americans to settle in the west by promising 160 acres in exchange for cultivating the land for 5 years.</p>
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Immigrants

This group of people who came to America, were opposed by Nativists, and attributed to urbanization.

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Labor Unions

These are formed in response to poor working conditions and low wages. (Ex: Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor)

<p>These are formed in response to poor working conditions and low wages. (Ex: Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor)</p>
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Laissez Faire

little government regulation in business. It is known as a "Hands Off Approach"; no anti-trust legislation.

<p>little government regulation in business. It is known as a &quot;Hands Off Approach&quot;; no anti-trust legislation.</p>
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Monopoly

total control of a type of industry by one person or one company

<p>total control of a type of industry by one person or one company</p>
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Nativist

a person who supports a policy of favoring longtime inhabitants as opposed to immigrants.

<p>a person who supports a policy of favoring longtime inhabitants as opposed to immigrants.</p>
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Robber Barons

an American capitalist who become rich by an means necessary. Seen as unethical

<p>an American capitalist who become rich by an means necessary. Seen as unethical</p>
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Rural

Americans move from this to the urban areas because of increased job opportunities in the cities.

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Standard of Living

The new technological innovations in both transportation and communication saw an improvement of material comfort available to a person or community.

<p>The new technological innovations in both transportation and communication saw an improvement of material comfort available to a person or community.</p>
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Urban

having to do with cities

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Transcontinental Railroad

Accelerated communication and migration between east and west

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Captains of Industry

Term for business leaders who created a technological revolution and gave money to charities

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Patents

inventors get exclusive right to use or license their inventions

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Vertical integration

controls of all steps involved in the production of a finished product.

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Horizontal Integration

Gaining complete control of competing companies in the same industry.

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Buffalo

This animal was used by Plains Indians for hides, meat, and bones; it was almost hunted to extinction by American hunters.

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George Pullman

Best known for his company's production of the "sleeping car" for railroad travel, and for the 1894 labor strike surrounding it's production.

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Gospel Of Wealth

This was the hypothesis, originally proposed by Andrew Carnegie, that wealth was the great end and aim of man, and that those with it had a responsibility to put it to good use.

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Horatio Alger

He was an author of inspirational adventure stories for boys with the main idea that virtue and hard work overcome poverty.

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69

Interstate Commerce Commission

This was a governmental agency formed in 1887 by Grover Cleveland to regulate railroads.

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J. P. Morgan

He was a U.S. banker and financier who was a leader in corporate finance and industrial mergers in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

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Sherman Antitrust Act

This law was passed in 1890 in order to limit the power and the formation of business monopolies.

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Subsidy

This is financial assistance from the government to encourage the production of or the purchase of a good.

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Cornelius Vanderbilt

American shipping and railroad industrialists who merged RR lines and offered the first rail service from New York City to Chicago.

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Collective Bargaining

Workers negotiating as a group with employers for higher wages and better working conditions

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American Federation of Labor

craft union made up of skilled white men. Led by Samuel Gompers

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Pullman Strike

Pullman company lowered wages and kept rent the same which led to a strike by workers. American Railway Union joined the Pullman workers in their strike

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Knights of Labor

Led by Terrance Powderly, Membership for ALL (skilled & unskilled) All races and ethnicity welcomed

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78

Wounded Knee

This is the site in South Dakota where, in 1890, US soldiers massacred over 150 Lakota men, women, and children in response to the Battle of Little Bighorn.

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barbed wire

invention used to close off the open range in the West. (cattle)

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social darwinism

belief used to justify the practice of laissez faire. Survival of the fittest applied to society- Individuals should work hard for a better life. Justified discrimination against immigrants.

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Bimetallism

This monetary standard is based on the inclusion of two precious metals- usually gold and silver- and was a major issue in the Populist Movement in the United States in the late-19th Century.

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Political Machine

This term refers to a political structure in which a powerful 'boss' commands the support of followers who receive favors in exchange for their efforts.

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Populist

This was the movement that advocated government control of railroads and currency expansion. Supported by farmers.

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84

Gospel of Wealth

Book written by Andrew Carnegie, spoke of the responsibility of the rich to share their money with the needy.

<p>Book written by Andrew Carnegie, spoke of the responsibility of the rich to share their money with the needy.</p>
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85

Tenement Housing

type of building where poor immigrants lived

<p>type of building where poor immigrants lived</p>
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86

Philanthropy

charity; a desire or effort to promote goodness

<p>charity; a desire or effort to promote goodness</p>
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87

JP Morgan

An influential banker and businessman who bought and reorganized companies. His US Steel company would buy Carnegie steel and become the largest business in the world in 1901

<p>An influential banker and businessman who bought and reorganized companies. His US Steel company would buy Carnegie steel and become the largest business in the world in 1901</p>
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Agricultural

relating to farming or rural matters

<p>relating to farming or rural matters</p>
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89

Sweatshop

A shop or factory where workers work long hours at low wages under unhealthy conditions

<p>A shop or factory where workers work long hours at low wages under unhealthy conditions</p>
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Settlement Houses

Community centers located in the slums and near tenements that gave aid to the poor, especially immigrants

<p>Community centers located in the slums and near tenements that gave aid to the poor, especially immigrants</p>
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Assembly Line

In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.

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Consumer Goods

products and services that satisfy human wants directly

<p>products and services that satisfy human wants directly</p>
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Mass Production

Process of making large quantities of a product quickly, cheaply by using machines and an assembly line

<p>Process of making large quantities of a product quickly, cheaply by using machines and an assembly line</p>
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Mechanization

Using machines to do tasks that human or animal labor used to do

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95

John D. Rockefeller

This man was the founder of Standard Oil & could have been considered a Robber Baron from his greed for power.

<p>This man was the founder of Standard Oil &amp; could have been considered a Robber Baron from his greed for power.</p>
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96

Thomas Edison

perfected the light-bulb & expanded electricity during the Gilded Age

<p>perfected the light-bulb &amp; expanded electricity during the Gilded Age</p>
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Start of Reconstruction

1865, marked by Andrew Johnson's presidency and the creation of five military districts and the Freedman's bureau

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End of reconstruction

Compromise of 1877 withdrew troops from the South; The North's waning resolve led to many in the North to no longer support Reconstruction.

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99

Battle of Gettysburg

July 1st-3rd (1863) Union leaders defeated General Lee. A turning point battle during the Civil War

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100

Appomattox

Famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant

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