Anatomy and Physiology Lab Practical 1

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Anatomy

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236 Terms

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Anatomy

study of structure

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Gross Anatomy (Macroscopic Anatomy)

Study of structures that can be seen with the naked eye

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Microscopic Anatomy

deals with structures that can only be seen with a microscope

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Cytology

study of cells

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Histology

study of tissues

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Regional Anatomy

the study of the interrelationships of all structures in a specific body region

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Systemic Anatomy

the study of the structures that make up a discrete body system (a group of structures that work together to performa unique body function

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Homeostasis

the state if steady internal conditions maintained by living things

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Cell

the smallest independently functioning living organism

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Tissue

a group of similar cells that perform a particular function

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Organelle

tiny functioning units within a cell

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Organ

a group of tissues that perform one or more specific functions

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Organ System

a group of organs that work together to to perform major functions to meet physiological needs of the body

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Anatomical Position

To stand erect with arms at the sides and palms of the hands turned forward

<p>To stand erect with arms at the sides and palms of the hands turned forward</p>
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Anterior (ventral)

describes the front or direction toward the front of the body

<p>describes the front or direction toward the front of the body</p>
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Posterior (dorsal)

describes the back or direction toward the back of the body

<p>describes the back or direction toward the back of the body</p>
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Superior (cranial)

a position above or higher than another part of the body

<p>a position above or higher than another part of the body</p>
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Inferior (caudal)

describes a position below or lower than another part of the body

<p>describes a position below or lower than another part of the body</p>
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Lateral

describes the side or direction away from the middle of the body

<p>describes the side or direction away from the middle of the body</p>
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Medial

describes the middle or direction toward the middle of the body

<p>describes the middle or direction toward the middle of the body</p>
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Proximal

describes a position in a limb that is nearer to the point of attachment or trunk of the body

<p>describes a position in a limb that is nearer to the point of attachment or trunk of the body</p>
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Distal

describes a position in a limb that is farther from the point of attachment to the trunk of the body

<p>describes a position in a limb that is farther from the point of attachment to the trunk of the body</p>
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Contralateral

describes structures found on different sides of the body

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Ipsilateral

describes structures found on the same side of the body

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Sagittal Plane

divides the body or organ vertically into right and left sides (Midsagittal plane is a line right down the middle of the body)

<p>divides the body or organ vertically into right and left sides (Midsagittal plane is a line right down the middle of the body)</p>
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Frontal Plane (coronal plane)

divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior portions

<p>divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior portions</p>
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Transverse Plane

divides body or organ horizontally into upper and lower portions, produce cross sections

<p>divides body or organ horizontally into upper and lower portions, produce cross sections</p>
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Oblique Plane

a diagonal cut between longitudinal and horizontal planes, produces uneven sections

<p>a diagonal cut between longitudinal and horizontal planes, produces uneven sections</p>
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Ventral Cavity

Includes thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

<p>Includes thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities</p>
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Dorsal Cavity

includes the cranial and spinal (vertebral) cavities

<p>includes the cranial and spinal (vertebral) cavities</p>
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Thoracic Cavity

contains the superior mediastinum, pleural cavity, and pericardial cavity within the mediastinum, and diaphragm

<p>contains the superior mediastinum, pleural cavity, and pericardial cavity within the mediastinum, and diaphragm</p>
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Abdominopelvic Cavity

contains the abdominal and pelvic cavities

<p>contains the abdominal and pelvic cavities</p>
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Epigastric Region

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Right Hypochrondriac Region

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Left Hypochrondriac Region

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Right Lumbar Region

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Umbilical Region

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Left Lumbar Region

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Right Iliac Region

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Hypogastric Region

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Left Iliac Region

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Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)

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Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)

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Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)

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Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)

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Abdominal Cavity

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Pelvic Cavity

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Cranial Cavity

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Vertebral Cavity

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Superior Mediastinum

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Pleural Cavity

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Pericardial Cavity with Mediastinum

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Diaphragm

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Cytosol

the jelly-like fluid component of the cytoplasm that includes the components necessary for cell function

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Cytoskeleton

a group of fibrous proteins, including microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules that help to maintain the cell’s structural integrity

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Nucleus

contains the cell’s DNA and directs cellular functions

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Mitochondrion

Converts energy storage molecules into the major energy molecule, ATP, to power cellular function

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Ribosome

Protein synthesis

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

includes ribsomes for the synthesis and modification or proteins

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Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

lipid synthesis

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Golgi Apparatus

sorts, modifies, and ships products from the endoplasmic reticulum

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Lysosome

contains digestive enzymes to break down materials

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Peroxisome

contains enzymes key for lipid metabolism and chemical detoxification

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Interphase

the period of the cell cycle during which the cell is not dividing

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Mitosis

the division of genetic material, during which the cell nucleus breaks down and two new, fully functional nuclei are formed

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Cytokinesis

divides the cytoplasm into two distinctive cells

<p>divides the cytoplasm into two distinctive cells</p>
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G1 Phase

when the cell grows and carries out all metabolic functions and processes

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S Phase

the period when a cell replicated its DNA

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G2 Phase

a second gap phase (like G1) during which the cell continues to grow and make preparations for mitosis

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Prophase

chromosomes condense and become visible, mitotic spindle microtubules attach to kinetochores

<p>chromosomes condense and become visible, mitotic spindle microtubules attach to kinetochores</p>
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Metaphase

chromosomes line up in the middle, each sister chromatid is attached to a spindle fiber

<p>chromosomes line up in the middle, each sister chromatid is attached to a spindle fiber</p>
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Anaphase

Centromeres split in two, sister chromatids (chromosomes) are pulled toward opposite poles

<p>Centromeres split in two, sister chromatids (chromosomes) are pulled toward opposite poles</p>
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Telophase

chromosomes arrive at opposite poles and begin to decondense, nuclear envelope material surrounds each set of chromosomes

<p>chromosomes arrive at opposite poles and begin to decondense, nuclear envelope material surrounds each set of chromosomes</p>
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Epithelial Tissue

sheets of cells that cover exterior surfaces of the body, line internal cavities and passageways, and form certain glands

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Connective Tissue

binds the cells and organs of the body together and functions in the protection, support, and integration of all parts of the body

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Muscle Tissue

excitable tissue that responds to stimulation and contracting to practical movement

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Nervous Tissue

excitable tissue that allows the propagation of electrochemical signals in the form of nerve impulses that allow communication between different parts of the body

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Apical surface

where the action happens

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Basal surface

the side of the cell connected to the grid

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80

Simple Squamous Epithelium

located in the alveoli of lungs where gases diffuse, segments of kidney tubules, and lining of capillaries, blood and lymphatic vessels. Allows materials to pass through by diffusion and filtration, and secretes lubricating substance

<p>located in the alveoli of lungs where gases diffuse, segments of kidney tubules, and lining of capillaries, blood and lymphatic vessels. Allows materials to pass through by diffusion and filtration, and secretes lubricating substance</p>
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81

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

found where protection against physical and chemical wear and tear is needed; lines the esophagus, mouth, and vagina.

<p>found where protection against physical and chemical wear and tear is needed; lines the esophagus, mouth, and vagina.</p>
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Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

active in the secretion and absorptions of molecules, found in the lining of the kidney tubules and in the ducts of glands

<p>active in the secretion and absorptions of molecules, found in the lining of the kidney tubules and in the ducts of glands</p>
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83

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

protective tissue found in sweat glands, salivary glands, and mammary glands but uncommon in human body

<p>protective tissue found in sweat glands, salivary glands, and mammary glands but uncommon in human body</p>
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Simple Columnar Epithelium

active in the absorption and secretion of molecules and often has microvilli to increase SA, forms the linings of digestive tract and bladder

<p>active in the absorption and secretion of molecules and often has microvilli to increase SA, forms the linings of digestive tract and bladder</p>
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85

Ciliated Columnar Epithelium

simple columnar epithelium cells with cilia on the apical surface, found in bronchi, and the lining of the uterine tubes and uterus

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Cilia

help to move materials along the apical surface of cells, usually found in respiratory or uterine tract

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Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

found in respiratory tract and upper trachea, ciliated tissue moves mucus

<p>found in respiratory tract and upper trachea, ciliated tissue moves mucus</p>
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Stratified Columnar Epithelium

secretes and protects, found in the male urethra and the ducts of some glands

<p>secretes and protects, found in the male urethra and the ducts of some glands</p>
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Keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium

ex: mammalian skin, where the top layer of skin is dead

<p>ex: mammalian skin, where the top layer of skin is dead</p>
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Transitional Epithelium

a type of stratified epithelium where the apical cells can change shape. Only found in the urinary system (bladder and ureters)

<p>a type of stratified epithelium where the apical cells can change shape. Only found in the urinary system (bladder and ureters)</p>
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91

Areolar Tissue

loose connective tissue, fills spaces between muscle fibers, surrounds blood and lymph vessels, and supports organs in the abdominal cavity

<p>loose connective tissue, fills spaces between muscle fibers, surrounds blood and lymph vessels, and supports organs in the abdominal cavity</p>
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92

Adipose Tissue

loose connective tissue, has large capillaries that allow for rapid storage and mobilization of lipid molecules. White tissue can be found protecting the kidneys and back of the eye

<p>loose connective tissue, has large capillaries that allow for rapid storage and mobilization of lipid molecules. White tissue can be found protecting the kidneys and back of the eye</p>
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93

Reticular Tissue

loose connective tissue, supports soft organs like lymphatic tissue, spleen, and liver. these cells produce the fibers that form the network onto which other cells attach

<p>loose connective tissue, supports soft organs like lymphatic tissue, spleen, and liver. these cells produce the fibers that form the network onto which other cells attach</p>
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94

Dense Regular Tissue

connective tissue with collagen fibers that enhance strength and resistance to stretching, used in ligaments and muscle tendons

<p>connective tissue with collagen fibers that enhance strength and resistance to stretching, used in ligaments and muscle tendons</p>
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Dense Regular Elastic Tissue

connective tissue, found between vertebrae and vocal folds

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96

Dense Irregular Tissue

connective tissue with collagen fibers arranged in different directions, found in dermis and arterial walls (provides strength and ability to regain original shape after stretching)

<p>connective tissue with collagen fibers arranged in different directions, found in dermis and arterial walls (provides strength and ability to regain original shape after stretching)</p>
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97

Hyaline Cartilage

supporting connective tissue, consists of collagen fibers and proteoglycans, found in bronchi, rib cage, nose, and covers bones where they meet to form joints

<p>supporting connective tissue, consists of collagen fibers and proteoglycans, found in bronchi, rib cage, nose, and covers bones where they meet to form joints</p>
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98

Fibrocartilage

supporting connective tissue, provides compressibility and absorbs pressure, has thick bundles of collagen fibers throughout its matrix, found in menisci of knee joint and intervertebral discs

<p>supporting connective tissue, provides compressibility and absorbs pressure, has thick bundles of collagen fibers throughout its matrix, found in menisci of knee joint and intervertebral discs</p>
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99

Elastic Cartilage

supportive connective tissue, provides firm but elastic support, contains elastic and collagen fibers, found in ear lobes

<p>supportive connective tissue, provides firm but elastic support, contains elastic and collagen fibers, found in ear lobes</p>
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100

Bone

protects internal organs and supports the body, contain collagen fibers covered in a mineralized substance, highly vascularized

<p>protects internal organs and supports the body, contain collagen fibers covered in a mineralized substance, highly vascularized</p>
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