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Activation Energy

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Biology

175 Terms

1

Activation Energy

amount of energy needed to start a reaction

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2

Amino Acid

Bounded by peptide bonds; monomer of a protein

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3

Carbohydrate

(monosaccharides) main source of energy for the cell; 1 gram = 4 calories

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4

Catalyst

used in enzymes to lower the activation energy and speed up the reaction

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5

Enzyme

Protein and Catalyst; have an active site and a substrate

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6

Lipid

(1 glycerol = 3 fatty acids) used for long term energy storage, make up the phospholipid bilayer; 1 gram = 9 calories

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7

Monosaccharide

simple sugars, monomer for carbs (glucose and sucrose)

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8

Nucleic Acids

Made of nucleotides, function is to store genetic information which can be seen in DNA and RNA

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9

Organic Molecule

bounded molecules made of carbon

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10

Protein

(amino acids) referred to as the building blocks

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11

Cell Theory

All living things are made of cells; Cells come from other cells; Cells are the basic structure and function of an organism

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12

Differentiation

How cells (stem cells) get their jobs

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13

Eukaryote

Cells that have a nucleus, large, complex (Ex. Plants and Animals)

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14

Multicellular Organisms

Organisms composed of many cells (Ex. tissue, humans, etc.)

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15

Organelles

Small structures that perform various functions for the cell (reside within the cytoplasm)

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16

Prokaryote

Cells with no nucleus, small, simple (Ex. Bacteria)

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17

Stem Cells

Undifferentiated cells

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18

Unicellular Organism

Organisms composed of only one cell (Ex. Bacteria)

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19

Passive Transport

No energy required; transport of small and medium materials across the plasma membrane (Osmosis, Diffusion, and Facilitated Diffusion)

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20

Diffusion

No energy required; transports molecules from high to low concentrations in order to even them out (for small materials)

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21

Osmosis

No energy required; transports WATER from high to low concentrations in order to even them out

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22

Facilitated Diffusion

"Semi-active" uses transport proteins to help move material across the plasma membrane, but still doesn't require energy

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23

Homeostasis

Internal condition is balanced

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24

Active Transport

Requires energy (ATP) for large molecules. Gets molecules across the cell through pumps and vesicles (endocytosis and exocytosis)

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25

Pumps

Molecules are "pumped" by a transport protein to get across the membrane, requiring energy

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26

Vesicles

Used when molecules are too large to pass through the membrane, even with the help of a transport protein

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27

Endocytosis

Large molecules going INTO the cell

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28

Exocytosis

Large molecules going OUT of the cell

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29

Concentration Gradient

Drives diffusion; moves from left to right

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30

Nucleus

Only in eukaryotic cells, holds DNA

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31

Mitochondria

Makes ATP, (Power house of the cell); Where Cellular Respiration occurs

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32

Chloroplast

Makes glucose for the plant; Where Photosynthesis occurs

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33

Lysosomes

Breaks down waste, food, etc.

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34

Vacuole

Where molecules, waste, etc. is stored; Bigger in Plant Cells

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35

Ribosomes

Makes protein; Where translation in protein synthesis occurs

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36

Rough ER

Transports Proteins; Has Ribosomes

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37

Smooth ER

Transports Proteins; Does not have Ribosomes

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38

Golgi Apparatus

UPS of the cell; Sorts and packages molecules

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39

Cilia

Movement for Eukaryotes

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40

Flagella

Movement for Prokaryotes

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41

Cell Membrane

Semi-permeable, therefore maintains homeostasis

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42

Nuclear Envelope

Controls what goes in/out of the nucleus

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43

Cell Wall

Only in Plant Cells; supports and provides protection

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44

Cytoplasm

dissolves nutrients, allowing diffusion to occur; holds all the organelles

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45

Hypotonic

Water only entering the cell, resulting in it being Lysed/Burst

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46

Isotonic

Same amount of water entering the cell as existing, resulting in an equilibrium, normal Cell

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47

Hypertonic

Water only exiting the cell, resulting in it being shriveled

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48

Photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

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49

Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O

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50

Anaerobic Respiration

Doesn't require oxygen; includes Lactic Acid Fermentation and Alcohol Fermentation of Cellular Respiration

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51

ATP

Main source of energy for the cell; made in the Mitochondria. When used in the cell it turns into ADP and returns to the Mitochondria to be converted back

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52

Aerobic Respiration

Stage of Cellular Respiration that requires Energy; includes the Krebs Cycle and ETC

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53

Lactic Acid Fermentation

In Anaerobic Respiration- pyruvates break down creating energy (found in muscles)

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54

Alcohol Fermentation

In Anaerobic Respiration- occurs mostly in yeast, pyruvates break down forming alcohol, CO2, and releasing energy

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55

Chromosome

long thread of DNA containing genetic information

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56

Sister Chromatid

One of 2 strands of a chromosome that becomes visible during mitosis

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57

Centromere

region of chromosomes that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis

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58

Centriole

(fishing pole) cell organelle that produces spindle fibers

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59

Spindle Fibers

Fibers that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell and assists in the separation of chromosomes

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60

DNA

Makes up chromosomes and copies itself during cell division, provides a blueprint for protein synthesis by specific arrangement of nitrogenous bases; Deoxyribose, Double Helix

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61

Cell Cycle

Repeated pattern of growth and division that occurs in eukaryotes

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62

Daughter Cells

Created at the end of mitosis, each has the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell and will be identical to each other

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63

Mitosis

Somatic Cells undergo this in order to repair and regrow, creating two identical diploid daughter cells

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64

Interphase

G1: growth

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65

S: (synthesis)

replicate DNA

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66

G2: growth

final stage of interphase

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67

Prophase

Preparing, Cell membrane begins to break down and spindle fibers form

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68

Metaphase

Chromosomes line up in the middle and spindle fibers attach to the centromere

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69

Anaphase

Spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids apart, pulling them away from the center of the cell

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70

Telophase

Cells membrane forms, spindle fibers retract, and chromosomes uncoil as the cell starts to become two

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71

Cytokinesis

The division of the cytoplasm into two individual cells

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72

Cancer

Uncontrolled Cell Growth (tumor)

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73

Gamete

Sexual reproductive cell (egg and sperm)

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74

Somatic

Body cell (liver, skin, etc.)

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75

Haploid

(1n) one set of chromosomes (egg and sperm)

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76

Diploid

(2n) two sets of chromosomes from each parent

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77

Homologous Pair

Cluster of four chromosomes, two from male and two from female, can exchange genetic information through crossing over

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78

Zygote

offspring (baby) where the egg and sperm meet

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79

Crossing Over

Allows for genetic diversity where the genetic information from male and female swap; occurs during Prophase I

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80

Meiosis

Start with one diploid cell and end with four unique haploid cells

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81

Alleles

different forms of a gene (Ex. 'A')

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82

Dominant

Trait is always expressed if present

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83

Recessive

Trait is only seen if dominant allele isn't present

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84

Homozygous

When an organism has two alike alleles for a trait (Ex. AA or aa)

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85

Heterozygous

When an organism has two different alleles for a trait (Ex. Aa)

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86

Genotype

Genetic makeup of an organism, revealing the types of alleles he/she has inherited (Ex. AA)

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87

Phenotype

Physical appearance/characteristic of an organism (Ex. Blue eyes)

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88

Monohybrid Cross

examines the inheritance of one trait

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89

F1 Generation

the first generation's offspring

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90

F2 Generation

the second generation's offspring

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91

Incomplete Dominance

Offspring is a mixture of the parent's characteristics through multiple generations

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92

Pedigree

A chart made to show inheritance patterns within a family

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93

Codominance

offspring contains BOTH parent's characteristics distinctly

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94

Polygenic Trait

Trait controlled by two or more genes (Ex. Skin color and Eye Color)

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95

Multiple Alleles

Exists for a particular trait even through only two alleles are inherited (Ex. Blood Type)

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96

Sex-Linked Trait

Involves genes on either the X or the Y chromosome; Passed most normally through the Y chromosome (Ex. Color blindness, Hemophilia)

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97

Trait

Characteristic that can be passed from one parent to offspring

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98

Heredity

Passing of traits from parent to offspring

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99

Genetics

Study of Heredity, each somatic cell is a diploid where chromosomes are inherited from offspring's parent

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100

Mendel

Father of Genetics; responsible of the Law of Inheritance

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