a&p lab midterm (unit 1, unit 4, unit 5)

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mandibular foramen (picture)

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1

mandibular foramen (picture)

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Zygomatic bone

Forms the cheek bones

<p><span>Forms the cheek bones</span></p>
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lacrimal bone

medial side of the orbit has a groove where the lacrimal sac is located

<p>medial side of the orbit has a groove where the lacrimal sac is located</p>
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nasal bone

forms the bridge of your nose

<p>forms the bridge of your nose</p>
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maxilla bone

contains (sockets) for the upper teeth

has infraorbital foramen

helps form the anterior part of the hard palate (roof of the mouth)

<p>contains (sockets) for the upper teeth</p><p>has infraorbital foramen</p><p>helps form the anterior part of the hard palate (roof of the mouth)</p>
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vomer

it forms the bony aspect of the nasal septum

<p>it forms the bony aspect of the nasal septum</p>
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interior nasal conchae

small hook like bones (most inferior) that project into the nasal cavity

<p>small hook like bones (most inferior) that project into the nasal cavity</p>
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palatine

forms the posterior part of the hard palate

helps form part of the orbit

<p>forms the posterior part of the hard palate</p><p>helps form part of the orbit</p>
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mandible

aka jaw

has sockets for the lower teeth

has a condylar process, coronoid process, mandibular foramen, mental foramen

<p>aka jaw</p><p>has sockets for the lower teeth</p><p>has a condylar process, coronoid process, mandibular foramen, mental foramen</p>
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sagittal suture

joins the parietal bones

<p>joins the parietal bones</p>
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coronal suture

joins frontal and parietal bones

<p>joins frontal and parietal bones</p>
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lambdoidal suture

joins parietal and occipital bones

<p>joins parietal and occipital bones</p>
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frontal bones

contains supraorbital foramen-hole where nerves and blood vessels pass through

<p>contains supraorbital foramen-hole where nerves and blood vessels pass through</p>
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landmarks of temporal bone

masteroid process, external auditory meatus, styloid process

<p>masteroid process, external auditory meatus, styloid process</p>
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significance of sphenoid bone

aka keystone bone

articulates with all other cranial bones

<p>aka keystone bone</p><p>articulates with all other cranial bones</p>
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landmakrs of ethmoid bone

contains cribform plate and crista galli

<p>contains cribform plate and crista galli</p>
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styloid process

skinny process that extends from the undersurface of the temporal bone

<p>skinny process that extends from the undersurface of the temporal bone</p>
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mastoid process

round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear

<p>round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear</p>
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sella turcica

depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located

<p>depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located</p>
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cribform plate of ethmoid

forms the roof of the nasal cavity and has many foramen (openings) through olfactory nerves pass

<p>forms the roof of the nasal cavity and has many foramen (openings) through olfactory nerves pass</p>
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pituitary gland

brain part that sits in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

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palatine bone

either of two irregulary shaped bones (similar to goal posts) that form the back of the hard palate and help us to form the floor of the orbits

<p>either of two irregulary shaped bones (similar to goal posts) that form the back of the hard palate and help us to form the floor of the orbits</p>
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vomer

nostril separator

<p>nostril separator</p>
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coronoid process of mandible (jaw bone)

bone part

<p>bone part</p>
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condylar process (mandibular condyle)

bone part

<p>bone part</p>
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mental foramen

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zygomatic process of maxilla

articulates with zygomatic bone

<p>articulates with zygomatic bone</p>
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auditory meatus

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infraorbital foramen

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zygomatic bone

cheek bone

<p>cheek bone</p>
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cranial bones

frontal, parietal (2), temporal (2), occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid

<p>frontal, parietal (2), temporal (2), occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid</p>
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inferior nasal concha

facial bone

<p>facial bone</p>
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palatine

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cranial sutures all in one pictures

coronal, sagittal, lambdoid, squamous

<p>coronal, sagittal, lambdoid, squamous</p>
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articulation

bone term for place where bones come together

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process

bone term for a projecting part of a bone

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condyle

bone term for a large rounded protuberance at the end of the bone

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suture

bone term for a fibrous joint (fixed) between bones of the skull

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fossa

bone term for a depression in bone

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foramen

bone term for an opening through a bone

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meatus

bone term for a tube like opening

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sinus

a chamber, hollow space or cavity in a bone

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body

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pedicles

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lamina

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spineous process

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transverse process

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superior articular process - facet

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inferior articular process facet

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7 cervicals

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transverse foramen

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atlas

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axis

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dens

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12 thoracic

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5 lumbar

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sacrum

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coccyx

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intervetebral disc

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intervetebral foramen

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vertebral canal

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4 categories of tissues

epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

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epithelias characteristics

  • cellularity

  • special cell contacts

  • polarity

  • supppered by connective tissue

  • avascular but innervated

  • regeneration

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epithelial - cellularity

almost entirely cell with very little extraceulluar matrix between cells

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epithelial - special cell contacts

desmosomes and tight junctions bind adjacent epithelial cells together

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epithelial - polarity

epithelial cells have apical or free surfaces that is not associated with other cells and most also have a basement membrane that helps attach them to underlying tissues

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epithelial - suppoerted by connective tissue

reticular lamina, basal laminal forms the basement membrane of epithelial

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epithelial - avascular but innervated

blood vessels do not penetrate the basement membrane to reach the epithelium, but contains nerve supply

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epithelial - regeneration

epithelial cells can undergo mitosis and replace themselves

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epithelial - where its found

covers surfaces such as digestive tract, outside of body, can also form glands, membrane

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lamina lucida

hellps anchor cells

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lamina densa

provides strength

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reticular lamina

attached to underlying connective tissue

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functions of epithelium - simple

diffusion, filtration, secretion, absorption

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functions of epithelium - stratified

protection

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functions of epithelium - squamous

thing and flat and therefore allow substances to diffuse through them or act as filters

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functions of epithelium - cubidal or columnar

generally cells that secrete or absorb substances because they have a greater cytoplasmic volume than squamous cells

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simple squamous

  • structure: flat or oval with central nucleus

  • location: places with little wear and tear, places where substances are diffused and filtered (capillaries, enothelium, alveoli, glomeruli, lens of eye)

  • function: diffusion, filtration, secretion

<ul><li><p>structure: flat or oval with central nucleus</p></li><li><p>location: places with little wear and tear, places where substances are diffused and filtered (capillaries, enothelium, alveoli, glomeruli, lens of eye)</p></li><li><p>function: diffusion, filtration, secretion</p></li></ul>
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simple cuboidal

  • structure: cube shaped with a central nucleus

  • location: in tubules where they can reabsorb substances, collecting ducts of kidneys, ducts, surface of ovaries

  • function: mainly absoprtion, active transport, secretion

<ul><li><p>structure: cube shaped with a central nucleus</p></li><li><p>location: in tubules where they can reabsorb substances, collecting ducts of kidneys, ducts, surface of ovaries</p></li><li><p>function: mainly absoprtion, active transport, secretion</p></li></ul>
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pseudostratified

  • structure: all cells touch basement membrane but not all reach the free surface

  • location: respiratory tract, male urethra

  • function: specialized goblet cells release mucous that coat passageways (is able to expand)

<ul><li><p>structure: all cells touch basement membrane but not all reach the free surface</p></li><li><p>location: respiratory tract, male urethra</p></li><li><p>function: specialized goblet cells release mucous that coat passageways (is able to expand)</p></li></ul>
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simple columnar

structure: nucleus near bottom of column shaped cells

location: inside lining of digestive tract, also contain goblet cells

function: secretion of mucous, absoprtion

<p>structure: nucleus near bottom of column shaped cells</p><p>location: inside lining of digestive tract, also contain goblet cells</p><p>function: secretion of mucous, absoprtion</p>
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stratified squamous

structure: many layers with outermost layer being flat and scale-like, underlying layers more cuboidal or columnar

location: anyway the outer layers can be abraded and generally wherever protection is needed

  • epidermis of skin, inside oral cavity, esophagus, vaginal canal

function: protection against abrasion, keratin also acts as waterproofing agent

<p>structure: many layers with outermost layer being flat and scale-like, underlying layers more cuboidal or columnar</p><p>location: anyway the outer layers can be abraded and generally wherever protection is needed</p><ul><li><p>epidermis of skin, inside oral cavity, esophagus, vaginal canal</p></li></ul><p>function: protection against abrasion, keratin also acts as waterproofing agent</p>
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stratified cubodial

structure: cuboidal cells but in layers

location: wherever protection is needed

  • sweat glands, ovarian follicles

function: protection and secretion

  • lots of layers of cuboidal cells, lots of layers of cells

<p>structure: cuboidal cells but in layers</p><p>location: wherever protection is needed</p><ul><li><p>sweat glands, ovarian follicles</p></li></ul><p>function: protection and secretion</p><ul><li><p>lots of layers of cuboidal cells, lots of layers of cells</p></li></ul>
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stratified columnar

kidney ducts, apical lauer is composed of columnar shaped cells

basal layer is usually cuboidal cells

large ducts of cells

<p>kidney ducts, apical lauer is composed of columnar shaped cells</p><p>basal layer is usually cuboidal cells</p><p>large ducts of cells</p>
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transitional

structure: looks like stacks of cuboidal cells when in relaxed state, layers closest to apical surface can distend as bladder fills

location: bladder, urethra, ureters

function: allows stretching of urinary bladder as it fills

<p>structure: looks like stacks of cuboidal cells when in relaxed state, layers closest to apical surface can distend as bladder fills</p><p>location: bladder, urethra, ureters</p><p>function: allows stretching of urinary bladder as it fills</p>
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connective tissue - general characteristics

  • all connective tissues develop from an embryonic tissue called mesenchyme

  • abundant extracellular matrix separates cells

    • protein fibers

    • ground substances of nonfibrous proteins and molecules

    • fluid

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connective tissue - protein fibers of the extracellular matrix

collagen: rope-like and strong but inflexible

reticular fibers - tiny collagen fibers that act like a web between tissues

elastin - elastic proteins that can be stretched and return to their original shape

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substances in connective tissue

proteoglycans: aid in water retention by connective tissue, make it able to withstand pressure

glycosaminoglygans: help to hold water

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loose connective tissue

usually vascular (vessel and blood adjacent) with nervous innervation

main cells: fibroblasts, fibrocytes, a few fibroclasts

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areolar connective tissue

structure: collagen, elastin, retuclar fibers loosel arranged in the EM

location: widespread throughout body, organs, surrounding capillaries, between tissues

function: acts to anchor skin to underlying tissues and also to anchor tissues together

<p>structure: collagen, elastin, retuclar fibers loosel arranged in the EM</p><p>location: widespread throughout body, organs, surrounding capillaries, between tissues</p><p>function: acts to anchor skin to underlying tissues and also to anchor tissues together</p>
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adipose tissue

connective tissue

structure: spherical or round, 95% fats, nucleus pushed to one side, highly vascular

location: under skin, around kidneys, eyeballs, other organs

function: cushioning, insulation, energy storage

<p>connective tissue</p><p>structure: spherical or round, 95% fats, nucleus pushed to one side, highly vascular</p><p>location: under skin, around kidneys, eyeballs, other organs</p><p>function: cushioning, insulation, energy storage</p>
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dense ct

avascular and has no nerve input

often referred to as fibrous connective tissue

main cells are fibroblasts

regular and irregular

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dense regular white fibrous ct

densley packed fibers, primarily collagen, arranged parallel and unidirectional, nuceli are also parallel

location: tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses

function: attach muscles to bones (tendons), attach bones to bones

<p>densley packed fibers, primarily collagen, arranged parallel and unidirectional, nuceli are also parallel</p><p>location: tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses</p><p>function: attach muscles to bones (tendons), attach bones to bones</p>
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dense irregular ct

irregular/random arrangement of fibers densley packed in multiple directions

location: mostly dermis of skin, capsules around organs and joints

function: strong in all directions

<p>irregular/random arrangement of fibers densley packed in multiple directions</p><p>location: mostly dermis of skin, capsules around organs and joints</p><p>function: strong in all directions</p>
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cartilage

avascular and lacks nerve fibers

has tensile and compressive strength

chondroblasts, chondrocytes, chondroclasts are the main cell types

  • chondro: relates to the cartilage

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hyaline cartilage

structure: collagenous fibers not really visible, but chondrocytes which are cartilage producing cells are visible in the hollow spaces

function: provides support and reinforcements, also covers joint surfaces and secretes fluid (lubricates joint surface and protects the ends of the long bones)

location: covering articular surfaces, at the ends of ribs, epiphyseal plates

<p>structure: collagenous fibers not really visible, but chondrocytes which are cartilage producing cells are visible in the hollow spaces</p><p>function: provides support and reinforcements, also covers joint surfaces and secretes fluid (lubricates joint surface and protects the ends of the long bones)</p><p>location: covering articular surfaces, at the ends of ribs, epiphyseal plates</p>
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fibrocartilage

structure: scattering of chondrocytes among a dense network of visible collagenous fibers

function: can absorb large amounts of compressive force, found in areas under great stress

location: pubic symphysis, intervertebral disks, discs of the knee and jaw joint

<p>structure: scattering of chondrocytes among a dense network of visible collagenous fibers</p><p>function: can absorb large amounts of compressive force, found in areas under great stress</p><p>location: pubic symphysis, intervertebral disks, discs of the knee and jaw joint</p>
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elastic cartilage

structure: chondrocytes in a matrix of mainly elastic tissue

function: gives support while remaining flexible

location: larynx, nose, external ear

<p>structure: chondrocytes in a matrix of mainly elastic tissue</p><p>function: gives support while remaining flexible</p><p>location: larynx, nose, external ear</p>
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bone

consist of mineralized EM which is hydroxyapatite and living cells (osteocytes and collagen)

holes in matrix are called lucane this is where osteocyte production occuring

very vascular and heals readily

<p>consist of mineralized EM which is hydroxyapatite and living cells (osteocytes and collagen)</p><p>holes in matrix are called lucane this is where osteocyte production occuring</p><p>very vascular and heals readily</p>
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blood cells

red and white blood cells are unique because they are suspended in a fluid matrix

classified as CT because it derives from mesenchyme

<p>red and white blood cells are unique because they are suspended in a fluid matrix</p><p>classified as CT because it derives from mesenchyme</p>
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