LIT1 Prelims

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Metonomy

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From World Lit to Confucius!

114 Terms

1

Metonomy

  • a part of a whole

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2

Displacement of Dreams

  • a dream night seem to be about one thing but is actually about something else

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3

Metaphor

  • direct object (represetation)

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4

Russian Formalists

  • studied what makes a verbal work of art

  • talked ab the diff between practical and literary/poetic speech

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5

Literary/poetic Speech

  • defamiliarization

  • critical thinking

  • makes u imagine

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6

Canon

  • A set of texts that are representative of what is good, fine, or beautiful in literature.

  • It is institutionalized; Everything that is taught in schools is __.

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7

Carl Jung

  • Proposed the concept of archetypes.

  • Archetypes have been proven by him in dreams.

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8

Archetypes

  • Common patterns in cultures.

  • “Collective unconscious.”

  • The perfect example or model of something.

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9

Stereotypes

  • Also known as Othering

  • Looking at the other as someone inferior.

  • Post-colonialism.

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10

Martin Puchner

  • wrote “The Written Word” which is ab intersection of storytelling and writing technologies

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11

Epic of Gilgamesh

  • The first masterpiece of world literature.

  • Written on clay where the first invention of writing took place

  • Written by Sin-Leqi-Unninni

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12

Paper

  • lowered the cost of literature which is a democratizing movement

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13

Tale of Genji

  • Written by Murasaki Shikibu, a lady-in-waiting at the court of Japan in around the year 1000s AD.

  • first literature written on paper by hand

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14

Invention of Writing

  • __ was invented at least twice in different forms.

    • Invented in Mesopotamia, China, Egypt, etc.

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15

Pictogram

  • An early form of writing wherein signs capture entire objects or ideas.

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16

Alphabet

  • Vastly reduces the number of signs you need to know from hundreds to two dozen.

  • important for homeric epics which are written in the alphabet

  • perfected in greece

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17

Print

  • Was invented first in China and then reinvented many hundreds of years later in Northern Europe.

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18

Buddhist sutra

  • The first surviving printed text in the world

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19

Latin bible

  •  the first large book printed by Gutenberg

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20

Parchment

  • made from stretched animal skins

  • led to the invention of the codex, the basis for today’s books.

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21

Papyrus

  • leaves of papyrus plant

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22

Translation

  • made World Literature accessible.

  • Not only are you translating words, but you are also translating cultures.

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23

Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe

  • full name of goethe !

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24

Frankfurt

  • where goethe lived

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25

Duke of Weimar

  • invited Goethe eastward, and he accepted due to various benefits.

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26

West-Eastern Divan

  • expressing a desire to travel to Persia and bridging the distance through imaginative leaps inspired by Hafez.

  • an interaction between the Western and Eastern cultures.

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27

Faust

  • the protagonist’s pact with the devil enables him to traverse the air

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28

Weimar Classicism

  • The Italy trip rekindled Goethe’s writing, and laid the foundations for the concept of world literature.

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29

Castle of Weimar

  • became the center of Goethe’s social and work life.

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30

Garden house

  • Goethe spent significant periods in the garden house, where he met Christiane Vulpius, a young woman of 23 when he was 39.

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31

three years

  • Their relationship caused a scandal, leading the Duke to send Goethe to live in the garden house, away from town, for __

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32

The Roman Elegies

  •  a tribute to their (goethe and christiane) relationship and Rome.

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33

Johan Peter Eckermann

  • eckermann’s full name

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34

Reflections on Poetry

  • Eckermann, a 29-year-old aspiring poet, took a bold step by sending his manuscript titled __

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35

May 24, 1823

  • date when Eckermann sent his transcipt

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36

University of Gottingen

  • was eventually accepted here in his late 20s to study law.

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37

two weeks

  • how long did eckermann travel to get to weimar

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38

Johanna Sophie Katherine Christine Bertram

  • eckermann’s fiance

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39

March 22, 1832

  • date of goethe’s death

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40

conversation with goethe

  • The published conversations read like interviews, with Eckermann prompting Goethe to share interesting, provocative, or profound insights.

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41

Wilhelm Grimm

  • collector of German folk tales who wrote to his brother, Jacob. 

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42

Turban

  • what the grimm brothers gifted goethe for his birthday

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43

Traditional Classics

  • ex. the odyssey, war and peace

  • Can be seen as old, long, and boring.

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44

Modern Classics

  • More relatable and relevant due to their themes.

  • ex. great gatsby, to kill a mockingbird

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45

Classic Literature

  • It is a representative of a historical period.

  • Literature isn’t confined to traditional novels; it also includes forms like movies, graphic novels, and video games that communicate messages through written word and visuals.

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46

Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve

  • French literary critic.

  • He criticized the traditional definition of a classic.

  • To him, a classic is an author who enriches the human mind, increases its treasure, discovers a moral or universal truth, and speaks in a distinct but universally relatable style.

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47

T.S Eliot

  • To him, the term “classic” has varying meanings and connotations in different contexts.

  • Argues that maturity is a key determinant of a classic, both in the writer, the society that produced the writer, and the language used in the work.

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48

triangular process for determining maturity

  • Maturity of Society

  • Maturity of Language

  • Maturity of Author

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49

Societal maturity

  • means that their works don’t belong to simply one culture; classics transcend cultures, sharing experiences across history and oppression.

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50

Language maturity

  • means that for a work to be a classic, they should spark perpetual cultural debate, transcending linguistic and societal boundaries.

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51

Archetypal classic

  • Creating or developing archetypes.

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52

Analytical Classic

  • Dismantling or deconstructing archetypes.

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53

Mark Van Doren

  • his perspective suggests that a classic is simply a work that remains in print, highlighting the ongoing debate about what defines a classic.

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54

Anxiety of Influence

  • by Harold Bloom

  • Oedipal conflict to compete and outdo the past author.

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55

Anxiety of Authorship

  • by Gilbert and Gubar

  • Responds to Harold Bloom

  • Anti-oedipal

  • They talk about how women have been sidelined in the literary tradition.

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56

Queer Representational Anxiety

  • 21st Century

  • Oscar Wilde, Henry James, Sappho

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57

The Western Canon

  • Written by Harold Bloom, a prominent American literary critic, and scholar.

  • Published in 1994.

  • Discusses and celeb

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58

World Literature by Damrosch

  • As established body of classics.

  • As an evolving canon of masterpieces.

  • As multiple windows on the world.

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59

Masterpiece

  • Complete and has magnitude.

  • Makes you arrive at a universal truth.

  • Excellent work of art.

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60

Shifty Work

  • Canon changes because of culture.

  • From Literature to literatures.

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61

Historical Sense

  • Coined by T.S. Eliot

  • It involves grasping the connections between past and present, recognizing how historical influences shape current perspectives and actions.

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62

Romantic Period

  • The speaker in the poem is the author.

  • Expressing their personal emotions and perspectives directly through the speaker in their poems.

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63

Modernist Period

  • The speaker in the poem is the persona.

  • Adopting fictional voices as speakers.

  • The speaker is a constructed persona separate from the author.

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64

Concrete Poetry

  • Experimental and uses imagery.

  • ex. grasshopper by E.E Cummings

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65

Literary Taste (Addison)

  • the discernment and appreciation of that is fundamentally excellent in literature.

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66

Literary Taste (Coleridge)

  • it is a rational activity but with a distinctively subjective bias.

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67

Literary Taste (Ruskin)

  • it is the almost instinctive preferring of one literature to another.

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68

Literary Taste (Paz Lazorena)

  • it is something taught or acquired.

    • When it is acquired, it becomes good.

    • Literature is to teach and to delight.

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69

Intellectual Value

  • Understanding of the good. 

  • Transcends mere facts by presenting truths shaped by imagination and art, adding depth and life to its content.

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70

Expressive Value

  • Good in terms of emotions.

  • Heightens what is good.

  • Stir emotions, including both pleasant and unpleasant

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71

Ethical Value

  • Good is what is moral.

  • Encourages us to be good citizens in society.

  • Isn’t solely didactic or aesthetic but serves to teach and delight, expressing truths that uplift and educate.

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72

Epics

  • Long narrative poem (episodic)

  • Spoken (oral)

  • Hexameter (6 syllables)

  • Plot — About an epic hero who goes through an adventure or a quest/journey and experiences a reversal of fortune and/or discover truth.

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73

Iliad

  • Achilles → Destined to die by his heel.

  • He changes from someone proud (hubris) to someone who is a hero (humble).

  • He chose to die.

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74

The Odyssey

  • Story of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, who wanders for 10 years trying to get home after the Trojan War.

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75

Hubris

  • other term for flaw

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76

Dream Work

  • manifestation of the unconscious; dreams represent our hidden desires.

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77

Psychological Criticism

  • What motivates the protagonist or hero, as well as the villain or anti-hero?

  • Do they appear to act consciously or unconsciously?

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78

Old Testament

  • parallels between Gilgamesh and Enkidu’s story with the __

  • Shamhat can also be likened to Mama Mary’s motherly role of cherishing, nurturing, and teaching Enkidu the ways of civilized humans.

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79

Henry Rawlinson

  • Spent 20 years learning how to translate the inscriptions

  • He figured out how to read cuneiform.

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80

Gilgamesh

  • Protagonist of the epic.

  • King of Uruk.

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81

Enkidu

  • A wild man created by the gods to humble Gilgamesh, who is abusing his power.

  • Lives in the wilderness with animals until Shamhat tames him.

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82

Shamhat

  • Temple prostitute, or sacred girl, who civilizes Enkidu.

  • Brought Gilgamesh and Enkidu together.

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83

Ishtar

  • Goddess of love and war.

  • Becomes infatuated with Gilgamesh and proposes marriage to him.

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84

Utnapishtim

  • King and priest of Shurrupak.

  • His name translates as “He Who Saw Life.”

  • Wise and pious man who survived a great flood sent by the gods; as a result, they granted eternal life to him and his wife.

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85

Siduri

  • Divine innkeeper who advises Gilgamesh during his journey to immortality.

  • She tells Gilgamesh to appreciate the simple pleasures of life and enjoy the company of his loved ones.

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86

Ea

  • One of the gods in Mesopotamian mythology.

  • Patron of humankind.

  • He is wise and helps Utnapishtim survive the flood by instructing him to build an ark.

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87

Humbaba

  • A monstrous creature and the guardian of the Cedar Forest.

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88

Ninsun

  • Gilgamesh’s mother and a goddess.

  • She is wise and interprets Gilgamesh’s dreams, providing guidance and support to her son.

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89

Lugalbanda

  • Gilgamesh’s father and a historical figure in Sumerian mythology.

  • He is mentioned in the epic as a mortal king and a warrior.

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90

Urshanabi

  • The ferryman of the gods who helps Gilgamesh cross the Waters of Death on his quest to find Utnapishtim, despite Gilgamesh breaking his boat.

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91

Shamash

  • The sun god and the judge of the gods.

  • He helps Gilgamesh and Enkidu in their battle against Humbaba

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92

Anu

  • Father of the gods and patron of Uruk.

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93

Enlil

  • God of wind and storms.

  • Unleashed a great flood and later granted Utnapishtim and his wife immortality.

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94

Aruru

  • Goddess of creation.

  • Created Enkidu from water (spit) and clay.

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95

Western Philosophy

  • Greeks

  • Plato and Aristotle emphasized that a healthy and stable state of polis/republic is a virtuous one (morally upright).

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96

Chinese Philosophy

  • the state has its own tradition of preserving the morality of its kingdom.

  • Many Chinese values are influenced by Confucius and his teachings.

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97

Analects of Confucius

  • Also known as Lunyu.

  • A collection of sayings and ideas attributed to Confucius, the Chinese philosopher and educator who lived around 551-479 BCE.

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98

Yi

  • Justice

  • Represents the moral disposition to do good and uphold justice.

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99

Zhi

  • Wisdom

  • intelligence, and knowledge.

  • Confucius emphasized the importance of continuous learning and self-cultivation.

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100

Zhong

  • Loyalty

  • Refers to loyalty and devotion, particularly in the context of relationships and governance.

  • Loyalty is considered a fundamental virtue in Confucianism, emphasizing the importance of faithfulness and allegiance to one’s family, friends, and rulers.

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