CHAPTER 12: BLOOD VESSELS AND CIRCULATION (copy)

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FUNCTIONS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

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FUNCTIONS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

  1. Carries blood.

  2. Exchanges nutrients, waste products, and gases with tissues.

  3. Transports substances.

  4. Helps regulate blood pressure.

  5. Directs blood flow to the tissues.

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Blood vessels outside the heart are divided into

pulmonary vessels systemic vessels

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GENERAL FEATURES OF BLOOD VESSEL STRUCTURE

• Arteries • Arterioles • Veins • Venules • Capillaries

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Tunics:

• tunica intima • tunica media • tunica adventitia

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Elastic arteries

-the largest-diameter arteries and have the thickest walls -greater proportion of their walls is composed of elastic tissue, and a smaller proportion is smooth muscle -examples: aorta and pulmonary trunk

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Muscular arteries

  • include medium-sized and small arteries

  • walls are relatively thick compared to their diameter

  • most of the wall’s thickness results from smooth muscle cells of the tunica media

  • frequently called distributing arteries

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Arterioles

  • transport blood from small arteries to capillaries

  • smallest arteries in which the three tunics can be identified

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Capillaries

• branch of to form networks • regulated by smooth muscle cells called precapillary sphincters • capillary walls consist of endothelium, which is a layer of simple squamous epithelium

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Veins

Venules Small veinsMedium-sized veins Large veins

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valves

ensure that blood flows toward the heart but not in the opposite direction

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BLOOD VESSELS OF THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION

pulmonary trunk pulmonary arteries pulmonary veins(four; two from each lung)

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Varicose veins

result when the veins of the lower limbs become so dilated that the cusps of the valves no longer overlap to prevent the backflow of blood

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Thromboses

occurs when blood clots block veins

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Phlebitis

inflammation of veins

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Gangrene

death of body tissue due to a lack of blood flow or a serious bacterial infection

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Aorta

largest artery; originates from the left ventricle

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Divisions of aorta:

• Ascending aorta • Aortic arch • Descending aorta o Thoracic aorta o Abdominal aorta

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Brachiocephalic artery

1st branch from aortic arch

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Right common carotid artery

medial branch of the brachiocephalic artery; transports blood to the right side of the head and neck

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Right subclavian artery

lateral branch of the brachiocephalic artery; transports blood to the right upper limb

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Left common carotid artery

2nd branch of aortic arch; transports blood to the left side of the head and neck

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Left subclavian artery

3rd branch of aortic arch;transports blood to the left upper limb

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Internal and External Carotid Artery

branches of common carotid artery

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Internal carotid artery

enter the brain to become circle of Willis

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Circle of Willis

circular system of arteries around the brain’s base which keeps the brain oxygenated

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Arteries of the Upper Limb

• Axillary artery • Brachial artery • Ulnar artery • Radial artery

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Thoracic aorta

o Visceral arteries o Parietal arteries

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Intercostal artery

provide blood to the intercostal muscles

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Phrenic artery

provide blood to the diaphragm

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Abdominal Aorta and Its Branches

• Visceral arteries Unpaired: o Celiac artery o Superior mesenteric artery o Inferior mesenteric artery Paired: o Renal artery o Suprarenal artery o Gonadal artery • Parietal arteries o inferior phrenic arteries o lumbar arteries o median sacral artery -

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Arteries of the Pelvis

• Common iliac o Internal iliac o External iliac

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Femoral artery

from external iliac and supplies the thigh

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Popliteal artery

from femoral and supplies the posterior knee

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Anterior and posterior tibial artery

from femoral and supplies shin area

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Dorsalis pedis artery

from the anterior tibial

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Fibular artery

aka peroneal artery; from posterior tibial artery; supplies the lateral ed and foot

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BLOOD VESSELS OF THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION: VEINS

Superior vena cava -returns blood from the head, neck, thorax, and upper limbs to the right atrium of the heart

Inferior vena cava -returns blood from the abdomen, pelvis, and lower limbs to the right atrium

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Brachiocephalic vein

drains into the SVC

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Subclavian vein

lateral branch which drains into the brachiocephalic

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Internal jugular vein

medial branch which drains into the brachiocephalic

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External jugular vein

external vein of the neck and is the lateral branch which drains into subclavian

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Axillary vein

medial branch which drains into the subclavian

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Brachial vein

superficial vein which drains into the axillary

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Cephalic vein

lateral branch which drains into the subclavian

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Basilic vein

becomes the axillary vein; major superficial veins

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Median cubital vein

usually connects the cephalic vein or its tributaries with the basilic vein

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Veins of the Thorax

• Azygos vein • Hemiazygos vein • Intercostal vein

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Common iliac vein

2 branches that join together to become the IVC; receives blood from lower extremities and brings it back to IVC

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External iliac vein

receives all the blood from lower extremities; drains blood into the common iliac

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Femoral vein

major lateral branch into the external iliac

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Great saphenous vein

major medial branch into the external iliac

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Popliteal vein

drains the posterior knee and drains into the femoral

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Small saphenous

lateral branch draining to the popliteal

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Anterior/Posterior Tibial

draining to the popliteal

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pulmonary vessels

transport blood from the right ventricle of the heart through the lungs and back to the left atrium

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systemic vessels

transport blood from the left ventricle of the heart through all parts of the body and back to the right atrium

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Arteries

blood vessels that conduct blood away from the heart; usually carry oxygenated blood

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Arterioles

small artery that leads to a capillary

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Veins

blood vessels that brings blood back to the heart; usually carry deoxygenated blood

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Venules

small vein that leads to a capillary

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Capillaries

small network of vessels where air exchange happens

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tunica intima

innermost layer, consists of an endothelium composed of simple squamous epithelial cells

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tunica media

middle layer, consists of smooth muscle cells arranged circularly around the blood vessel

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tunica adventitia

composed of dense connective tissue adjacent to the tunica media; becomes loose connective tissue toward the outer portion

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Venules

have a diameter slightly larger than that of capillaries

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Small veins

o slightly larger in diameter than venules o all three tunics are present

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Medium-sized veins

o collect blood from small veins and deliver it to large veins o have three thin but distinctive tunics

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Large veins

also have three thin but distinctive tunics

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pulmonary trunk

branches into right and left pulmonary arteries

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pulmonary arteries

extend to the right and left lungs; carry deoxygenated blood to the pulmonary capillaries in the lungs

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pulmonary veins

exit the lungs and carry oxygenated blood to the left atrium

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Ascending aorta

from the left ventricles, it goes upward; where coronary arteries branch off

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Aortic arch

bend of the aorta

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Descending aorta

longest part of the aorta; extends through the thorax and abdomen to the upper margin of the pelvis

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Thoracic aorta

portion of the aorta in the thorax

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Abdominal aorta

part of the descending aorta within the abdomen

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Axillary artery

continuation of the subclavian artery inferior to the clavicle

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Brachial artery

continuation of the axillary artery in the upper arm

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Ulnar artery

medial branch of the brachial artery

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Radial artery

lateral branch of the brachial artery

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Visceral arteries

supply the thoracic organs

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Parietal arteries

supply the thoracic wall

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Celiac artery

to the stomach, pancreas, liver

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Superior mesenteric artery

small and proximal large intestine

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Inferior mesenteric artery

distal large intestine

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Renal artery

to the kidneys

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Suprarenal artery

to the adrenals

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Gonadal artery

testicular and ovarian

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inferior phrenic arteries

supply the diaphragm

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lumbar arteries

supply the lumbar vertebrae and back muscles

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median sacral artery

median sacral artery

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Common iliac

goes to the lower extremity

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Internal iliac

medial branch of common iliac; provides blood to the pelvic organs

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External iliac

lateral branch of common iliac; goes down to the lower limb

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Azygos vein

only found on the left side of the body; unpaired branch which drains into the SVC

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Hemiazygos vein

2 sets of multiple veins that empty into the azygos

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Intercostal vein

drains into azygos (left) and hemiazygos (right)

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Internal iliac vein

2 branches that join together to become the IVC; drains blood from the pelvic area and brings it back to IVC

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Portal system

a system of blood vessels that begins and ends with capillary beds and has no pumping mechanism

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Inferior mesenteric vein

empties into the splenic vein

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