anesthesia prep

studied byStudied by 6 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint
  • reduction and thickening of respiratory/salivary secretions

  • can clog and produce thick mucous within airways predisposing patient to airway occlusion

  • possible resp arrest in small animals

1 / 166

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

167 Terms

1
  • reduction and thickening of respiratory/salivary secretions

  • can clog and produce thick mucous within airways predisposing patient to airway occlusion

  • possible resp arrest in small animals

what are anticholinergics effects on the respiratory system?

New cards
2

treatment of severe bradycardia, heart block, or excessive salivary secretions

what are anticholinergics used for?

New cards
3

Glycopyrrolate

Anticholingeric that is less likely to induce cardiac arrythmias

New cards
4

Atropine

anticholinergic that is usually a better choice for emergency treatment for bradycardia/cardiopulmonary arrest bc it has a faster onset of action

New cards
5

tranquilizer

reduces anxiety but does not decrease awareness and wakefulness

  • Acepromazine is a major

New cards
6

Sedatives

reduces mental activity and produces sleepiness

New cards
7

Phenothiazines

Benzodiazepines

Alpha 2 adrenergic agonists

what are the 3 classes of sedatives/tranquilizers commonly used in VetMed?

New cards
8

tissues in the pharynx

sedatives relax what tissues ?

New cards
9
  • resp distress

  • upper airway occlusion

  • be VERY careful in brachycephalic breeds (esp those w stridor before premedication)

sedatives may cause

New cards
10

Acepromazine

Phenothiazine:

“Major” Tranquilizer

non-controlled

water soluble

used in large and small med

can decrease the dose of gen anesthetic required

can ease induction and recovery

IM/IV route

no antagonist

New cards
11
  • depression

  • blocks alpha 2s, dopamine, and histamine receptors in brain

  • metabolized by the liver

  • crosses placental barrier slowly

  • 15 min onset of action

  • peaks at 30-60 min

  • duration 4-8 hrs in small animal

  • duration shorter than 1-3 hrs in equine

what are Phenothiazines mode of action?

New cards
12

No, because they cross the placental barrier and can spread meds to baby and baby cannot handle the hypotension it can cause.

are Phenothiazines good to give for c-sections?

New cards
13

calming, sedation, reluctance to move, and decreased interest in surroundings

-reduces seizure threshold (not good to give to epileptic or seizure patients)

-sedation is less pronounced in feline than in canine and equine

Phenothiazines effects on CNS

New cards
14

no; it is only a tranquilizer that reduces anxiety, calms, and causes sedation

do phenothiazines cause analgesia?

New cards
15
  • dose dependent tachycardia in response to hypotension

  • Antiarrhythmic effects protecting against ventricular arrhythmias

  • peripheral vasodilation

  • DECREASES cardiac output

  • can lead to increased heat loss- hypothermia

  • patients on isoflurane could experience significant hypotension

what are phenothiazine’s effects on the cardiovascular system?

New cards
16

Acepromazine does NOT cause significant respiratory depression

  • drug of choice for patient in respiratory distress w/o other debilitating factors

Phenothiazines effect on respiratory system:

New cards
17

vomiting

Phenothiazines can help prevent

New cards
18

penile prolapse

phenothiazines can cause what in equine? (geldings, stallions to be exact)

New cards
19

PCV

Phenothiazines can decrease ______ in equine and canine due to increased uptake of red blood cells by the spleen.

New cards
20

histamines; do not use in patients undergoing allergy testing

Phenothiazines can prevent release of

New cards
21

Collies and Aussies

Doses of Acepromazine (phenothiazine) should be reduced by 25% in what breeds to minimize the effect of exaggerated/prolonged sedation?

New cards
22

Giant breed dogs - greyhounds and boxers

what breeds are extremely sensitive to Acepromazine (phenothiazine) and may experience severe bradycardia and hypotension?

  • use w caution

New cards
23

Benzodiazepines

referred to as minor tranquilizers

New cards
24

Benzodiazepines

minor tranquilizer that is most often used in combinations with other agents for their muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties.

  • may cause dysphoria

  • unreliable sedative effects

New cards
25

Diazepam (IV; poorly absorbed and irritating)

Zolazepam (IM and IV)

Midazolam (IM and IV)

what are commonly used Benzodiazepine drugs?

where are they administered?

New cards
26

CNS

Benzodiazepines depress the

New cards
27

40% propylene glycol; water soluble

Injectable diazepam (benzodiazepine) is mixed with ___% propylene glycol and is not ______ ________.

New cards
28

Ketamine

Benzodiazepines should NOT be mixed with water soluble drugs except for

New cards
29

precipitate

Diazepam (Benzodiazepine) should not be mixed in a syringe with other drugs because a ____________ may form.

New cards
30

plastic

Diazepam (Benzodiazepine) can bind to ________; so should not sit in a syringe for long periods of time.

  • should not be used as CRI as it will be absorbed by IV bags and IV tubing

New cards
31

water soluble

Midazolam and zolazepam (Benzodiazepines) are _______- _________ and can be used in combination with other water-soluble drugs.

New cards
32

15 min onset

1-4 hrs duration

Most Benzodiazepines have a rapid onset of action after IM injection with a ____ min onset and __-__ hours duration.

New cards
33

provides anti-anxiety and calming effects

  • anticonvulsant activity (can be used with other agents that have the potential to cause seizures to outride them)

  • reliable in geriatric patients

  • does not cause significant sedation in young, healthy animals

  • Diazepam enhances the sedation and analgesia of other agents

Benzodiazepines effects on the CNS:

New cards
34

few

at therapeutic doses, benzodiazepines have ____ effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

New cards
35

Benzodiazepines

__________________ have a high margin of safety even at an overdose, it typically wont affect anything.

  • HR, BP, and cardiac output are minimally affected.

  • good for anesthesia with high-risk and geriatric patients

New cards
36

skeletal

benzodiazepines provide ________ muscle relaxation.

New cards
37

200-400mL

tidal volume: 10-15ml/kg

what is the tidal volume range for a 20 kg beagle mix?

New cards
38

stage III, plane 2

what is the desired anesthetic plane for surgical procedures?

New cards
39

invasive blood pressure measurements

which of the following blood measure measuring techniques is considered “gold standard” in terms of accurate measurements?

New cards
40

they ensure that gases flow toward the patient in one breathing tube and away from the patient in the other breathing tube.

why are unidirectional valves an important part of an anesthesia machine?

New cards
41

direct

which of the following methods is the most accurate way to assess blood pressure in pediatric patients?

New cards
42

poor tissue perfusion

capillary refill time that is over 3 seconds is indicative of

New cards
43

an anesthetic waste gas scavenging system

all inhalant anesthetic machines should have

New cards
44

hypoglycemia

young puppies and kittens have limited glucose reserves and are at a greater risk of what condition because of fasting before anesthesia?

New cards
45

increase in airway resistance

placing an endotracheal tube that is too small compared with the diameter of the trachea can cause

New cards
46

alpha 2 agonists

which of the following drug classes is not commonly used in pediatric patients because of its side effect of bradycardia?

New cards
47

cattle

in the united states, xylazine is not approved for use in

New cards
48

atropine

which of the following preanesthetic drugs will cross the blood-brain barrier and placental barrier in pregnant patients?

New cards
49

direct

which of the following methods is the most accurate way to assess blood pressure in pediatric patients?

New cards
50

6 hours

a patient needs to receive 1.2 of lactated ringer’s solution at the drip rate of 50 drops/min using a 15 drops/mL administration set. How long will it take for the fluids to be administered?

New cards
51

headache

which of the following is experienced by veterinary personnel who are exposed to waste anesthetic agents on a short term basis?

New cards
52

morphine

which of the following preanesthetic drugs should be avoided in GDV patients?

New cards
53

lidocaine

which drug can prevent laryngospasm?

New cards
54

2 mg

0.1mg/kg x 60 kg = 6mg

6mg/4mg = 1.5 = 2

the dosage of acepromazine is 0.1 mg/kg and the maximum dose is 4 mg. how many milligrams would you administer to a 60 kg dog?

New cards
55

ventricular premature complexes

you are monitoring a 12 year old dog for a humeral fracture repair. you notice that the complexes on the ECG are intermittently wide and bizarre; otherwisem the rhythm is normal. which arrhythmia is most probably occurring?

New cards
56

spraying the endotracheal tube with lidocaine

all of the following techniques can be used to prevent laryngospasm in cats except:

New cards
57

retrobulbar block

what nerve block is commonly used to desensitize nerves and add additional analgesia to an ocular procedure?

New cards
58

pectoral muscles

intramuscular injections are most commonly administered into which of the following muscles in avian patients?

New cards
59

protein

which substance in blood can alter the rate and amount of absorption of barbiturates?

New cards
60

SC

which route of preanesthetic administration tends to produce longer lasting effects?

New cards
61

liver

which organ plays a crucial role in the metabolism and clearance of most anesthetic drugs?

New cards
62

capnometry

which of the following offers a continuous, noninvasive way to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood?

New cards
63

swallowing reflex returns

in nonbrachycephalic breeds of dogs recovering from anesthesia, the endotracheal tube should be removed when

New cards
64

to deliver a burst of pure oxygen into the breathing system

what is the function of a flush valve within the anesthetic circuit?

New cards
65

to deliver safe and effective levels of anesthetic gas

what is the function of a vaporizer?

New cards
66

articular artery

all of the following sites are acceptable for palpating peripheral pulses in patients under anesthesia except

New cards
67

increasing ETCO2

all of the following are signs of hypotension except

New cards
68

reflexes

when monitoring vital signs of an anesthetized patient, you must observe and record all of the following except?

New cards
69

seizure

which of the following is a potential complication for a patient anesthetized for a myelogram?

New cards
70

atropine

which preanesthetic agent blocks acetylcholine at the muscarinic receptors?

New cards
71

surgery patients with blood loss may require colloids instead of crystalloids

all of the following statements regarding fluid infusion rates are false except

New cards
72

1100 psi

what will the tank pressure gauge read when the oxygen tank is half full?

New cards
73

0.26 to 0.52mg/0.52 to 1.04mL

13×0.02 = 0.26 mg

13×0.04 = 0.52 mg

13 kg x0.02/0.5=0.52mL

13kg x 0.04/0.5 = 1.04 mL

what is the dose range in mg and mL for a 13kg for atropine sulfate (0.5mg/mL) at dosage of 0.02 to 0.04 mg/kg?

New cards
74

two atria and one ventricle

reptiles have a 3 chambered heart consisting of the following:

New cards
75

increasing ETCO2

which of the following are signs of hypotension except:

New cards
76

surgical anesthesia

specific stage in general anesthesia where there is a sufficient degree of analgesia and muscle relaxation to allow surgery to be performed without patient pain or movement?

New cards
77

plasma-lyte 148

which of the following fluids is an example of a crystalloid?

New cards
78

26 ×15kg = 390 / 10 = 39kg

an animal is given 26 mg of a drug. the dosage is 1mL/15kg. the concentration of the drug is 10mg/mL. how much does this animal weigh?

New cards
79

ventricular premature complexes

you are monitoring a 12 year old dog for a humeral fracture repair. you notice that the complexes on the ECG are intermittently wide and bizarre; otherwise, the rhythm is normal. which arrhythmia is most probably occuring?

New cards
80

heart murmur and moderate dehydration

which patient situation is considered a category III risk for anesthesia complications, according to the ASA scale?

New cards
81

fasting is not recommended in young patients

you have been asked to induce and monitor anesthesia in an unwanted kitten presenting for wound care after being stepped on by a child. how long should you fast this patient before anesthetic induction?

New cards
82

atropine

which of the following drugs is not generally suggested for use in sheep?

New cards
83

the rostral maxilla

an infraorbital dental nerve block is used to block the sensation of pain to which of the following areas?

New cards
84

dexmedetomidine

which of the following drugs drastically reduces cardiac output?

New cards
85

prolong the recovery time

depressant preanesthetic medication may have what effect on the anesthesia procedure?

New cards
86

when the pressure manometer indicates 0-2 cm H20 while the patient is spontaneously breathing

how can you tell whether the endotracheal tube has been placed in the esophagus?

New cards
87

sex

which does NOT influence MAC?

  • sex

  • age

  • temp

  • stress

New cards
88

epiglotoscope

all of the following items make it easier to intubate swine except

New cards
89

yohimbine

flumazenil reverses benzos

what drug is used to reverse effects of xylazine

New cards
90

ketamine

which drug be avoided in patients requiring ocular surgery bc it causes an increase in intraocular pressure?

New cards
91

vapor pressure

which is a measure of the volatility of an anesthetic liquid?

New cards
92

alpha 2s= dexmedetomidine

which of the following drugs drastically reduces cardiac output?

New cards
93

17mL

how much sterile water is needed to make a 6% solution using 1 g of drug?

New cards
94

?

if a bucket holds 5 gallons, how much iodine must be added to make a concentration of 2ppm?

1 gallon = 3785 mL

New cards
95

atelectasis

diminished volume or a lack of air in part or all of a lung lobe

New cards
96

22.5g

how much NaCL should be measured out to produce 500 mL of a 4.5% w/v solution?

New cards
97

pressure measured when the left ventricle contracts

which of the following the best represents systolic blood pressure?

New cards
98

90mL

what volume of LRS fluids did a patient receive if the drip rate was approximately 30 drops/min using a 20 drop/mL administration set and the dr requested that the patient receive this volume of LRS over the next hour?

New cards
99

capnograph

when a capnometer is combined with a continuous graphical display, the monitoring device is referred to as a

New cards
100

swine and exotics

in which patient groups are butyrophenones most commonly used for preanesthesia?

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 88 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard110 terms
studied byStudied by 88 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard87 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard73 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)