Exam 1

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Pathophysiology

1 / 155

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

156 Terms

1

Pathophysiology

the study of the changes of body function with disease.

New cards
2

patho-

disease

New cards
3

physiology

The study of body function

New cards
4

Disease

anything that is abnormal from your normal health/state of wellness. Inability to maintain homeostasis (internal balance).

New cards
5

What causes disease?

pathogens, abnormal function of cells, environmental factors, genetics, etc...

New cards
6

Pathogen

An organism that causes disease

New cards
7

Types of pathogens

viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites

New cards
8

types of environmental factors that contribute to disease

water and air pollution, radiation, diet and exercise

New cards
9

Sedentary Lifestyle

low amount of exercise/physical activity

New cards
10

Predisposing factor (Risk factor)

Something that increases risk of developing a disease.

New cards
11

Homeostasis

ability to maintain an internal balance

New cards
12

What are the top 2 leading causes of death in the US?

Heart disease and cancer

New cards
13

what are the common cellular adaptations?

atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia.

New cards
14

Atrophy

cells decrease in size

New cards
15

atrophy

<p></p>
New cards
16

hypertrophy

cells increase in size

New cards
17

Hypertrophy

<p></p>
New cards
18

Hyperplasia

increased number of cells

New cards
19

hyperplasia

<p></p>
New cards
20

Metaplasia

replacement with a difference, but normal (non-canerous) cell/tissue type

New cards
21

metaplasia

<p></p>
New cards
22

Dysplasia

increased number of cells, variable cell size, shape, and structure, loss of organization (possible pre-cancer).

New cards
23

dysplasia

<p></p>
New cards
24

Neoplasia

increased number of cells, variable size and shape, loss of organization, variable nuclei, can be cancer

New cards
25

neoplasia

<p></p>
New cards
26

hyper-

increased

New cards
27

Apoptosis

process of programmed cell death

New cards
28

necrosis

traumatic cell death

New cards
29

what can occur with necrosis?

may cause local inflammation due to release of lysosomal enzymes

New cards
30

Types of necrotic tissue damage

liquefaction, coagulative, and fat necrosis

New cards
31

Liquefaction

dead cells are liquefied by enzymes

New cards
32

Coagulative

cell proteins are denatured and insoluble

New cards
33

coagulative necrosis looks

caseous

New cards
34

caseous

thick, yellowish, "cheesy" substance forms in tissue

New cards
35

caseous

<p></p>
New cards
36

liquefaction

<p></p>
New cards
37

fat necrosis

fatty tissue broken down into fatty acids

New cards
38

fat necrosis

<p></p>
New cards
39

denatured

unfold, bigger, not compact

New cards
40

infarction

area of dead cells resulting from lack of oxygen

New cards
41

infarction

<p></p>
New cards
42

hypoxia

low oxygen levels

New cards
43

infarction is susceptible to

hypoxic damage that varies by cell type

New cards
44

Gangrene

areas of necrotic/dead tissue that has been infected by bacteria

New cards
45

gangrene

<p></p>
New cards
46

iatrogenic

disease related caused by medical treatments

New cards
47

Etiology

cause of disease

New cards
48

filtration

a process that causes ISF to flush out of capillary

New cards
49

absorption

a process that causes ISF to flush into a capillary

New cards
50

Hydrostatic pressure (HP)

force exerted by fluid pressing against wall (push)

New cards
51

osmotic pressure

the external pressure that must be applied to stop osmosis (pull)

New cards
52

What causes edema?

excess filtration, decreased absorption, increased capillary permeability, or blocked lymphatics

New cards
53

edema

swelling

New cards
54

If your Blood pressure decreases, the volume of ISF in a particular tissue would?

decrease, lower BP = Less push

New cards
55

Decreased levels of protein in the blood would cause the volume of ISF in a tissue to?

increase, less protein = less pull

New cards
56

Hypoalbuminemia

low albumin levels in the blood

New cards
57

high BP equals

ISF pushes out of capillary

New cards
58

manifestations

signs and symptoms of disease

New cards
59

signs

changes in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease. Ex: fever, BP

New cards
60

Symptoms

Subjective characteristics of disease felt only by the patient. Ex: headache, fatigue

New cards
61

First line of defense against pathogens

mechanical and chemical barriers

ex. fluids- tears, saliva, mucus

barriers- skin, mucus membranes. Do not change according to type of pathogen

New cards
62

Second line of defense against pathogens

innate immune responses Ex: phagocytosis, inflammatory response, and interferon

New cards
63

innate

existing from birth, inborn

New cards
64

Interferons

antiviral proteins

New cards
65

Thirds line of defense against pathogens

specific immune responses. Ex: B and T cells. Specific to type of pathogen

New cards
66

Inflammation

is a nonspecific defense mechanism that occurs in response to tissue injury or infection

New cards
67

-itis

inflammation of tissue

New cards
68

Complication

new conditions or diseases that result from the initial disease.

New cards
69

precipitating factor (triggers)

factors that precipitate an acute episode of a chronic illness

New cards
70

inflammatory responses can be triggered by

direct mechanical damage, chemicals, ischemia, allergic reactions, burns, infections, etc...

New cards
71

Process of Inflammation

1. injury or infection occurs

2. cells release chemical mediators

3. pain receptors activated by bradykinin

4. vasodilation/hyperemia

5. increased capillary permeability

6. proteins, water, and cells leave capillaries to form exudate

7. edema

8. Leukocytes move to site of injury/ chemotaxis occurs

9. phagocytes remove debris and prepare for healing

10. formation of blood clot that seals off the area

New cards
72

ischemia

Lack of blood supply

New cards
73

exudate

the interstitial fluid formed in the inflamed area

New cards
74

chemotaxis

movement of cells in response to a chemical

New cards
75

hyperemia

increased blood flow

New cards
76

Leukocytes

white blood cells

New cards
77

ISF

interstitial fluid

New cards
78

local manifestations of inflammation

redness, heat/warmth, swelling, pain, sometimes loss of function

New cards
79

mechanisms or rationale of pain

stimulation of pain-sensing neurons

New cards
80

mechanisms or rationale of redness and warmth

caused by hyperemia ( increased blood flow)

New cards
81

mechanisms or rationale of edema

caused by increase of capillary permeability

New cards
82

mechanisms or rationale of loss of function

depends on how severe

New cards
83

mechanism or rationale

how did we get there?

New cards
84

types of exudate

serous, fibrinous, purulent, hemorrhagic

New cards
85

serous

mostly fluid, some protein and leukocytes (thin, watery)

New cards
86

serous

<p></p>
New cards
87

fibrinous

thick, sticky, high levels of fibrin and leukocytes

New cards
88

fibrinous

<p></p>
New cards
89

purulent

thick, yellow-green, high levels of leukocytes, cell debris, and bacteria (pus)

New cards
90

purulent

<p></p>
New cards
91

hemorrhagic

bloody, can be combined with other exudate types

New cards
92

hemorrhagic

<p></p>
New cards
93

systemic manifestations of inflammation

distant or away from sight of injury or infection

New cards
94

systemic

whole body

New cards
95

malaise

general feeling of unwellness

New cards
96

fatigue

tired

New cards
97

anorexia

loss of appetite

New cards
98

acute phase responses

changes in certain plasma proteins, leukocyte numbers

New cards
99

plasma

liquid part of blood

New cards
100

plasma proteins

blood proteins

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7884 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(53)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard227 terms
studied byStudied by 81 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard113 terms
studied byStudied by 66 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 1189 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)