Bio Lec Exam (terminology)

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

extracellular digestion

1 / 295

Tags and Description

Biology

296 Terms

1

extracellular digestion

Digestion that takes place outside body cells; enzymes released to the environment break down nearby organic matter into particles the fungus can absorb (absorptive heterotrophy)

New cards
2

Hypha (pl. hyphae)

Any of the threadlike filaments that form the mycelium of a fungus, or of many Oomycota

New cards
3

Mycelium

A network of branching hyphae that constitutes the body of a multicellular fungus, or of many Oomycota.

New cards
4

septum (pl. septa); septate

A thin partition or cross wall that separates body segments

New cards
5

Chitin

A polysaccharide that contains nitrogen and is present in the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of arthropods.

New cards
6

coenocytic

Condition in which a single cell has many nuclei.

New cards
7

Haustorium (pl. haustoria)

The hyphal tip of a parasitic fungus that penetrates a host plant and absorbs nutrients from it

New cards
8

syngamy

Union of haploid cells or nuclei from different individuals; consists of two stages separate in time (plasmogamy and karyogamy)

New cards
9

plasmogamy

the union of the cytoplasms of two parent mycelia

New cards
10

karyogamy

Fusion of two haploid nuclei to form a diploid nucleus

New cards
11

dikaryon (dikaryotic)

The life stage in certain fungi in which a cell contains two genetically distinct haploid nuclei

New cards
12

meiospore

Spore produced by meiosis; haploid.

New cards
13

mitospore

A spore produced asexually by mitosis; diploid

New cards
14

Sporangiospore

A form of asexual spore in fungi; enclosed in a sac

New cards
15

Conidiospores

A form of asexual spore in fungi; not enclosed by a spore-bearing sac

New cards
16

Zygosporangia (Zygospore)

A multinucleate, thick-walled sexual spore formed from the fusion of the cytoplasm of the mycelia of two neighboring fungi; many zygotes are formed here

New cards
17

gametangium

In certain plants and fungi, a cell or organ in which gametes are produced.

New cards
18

Mycorrhizae

Symbiotic relationship between the mycelium of a fungus and the roots of certain plants

New cards
19

Endomycorrhizae

A mycorrhiza in which the fungal hyphae penetrate into cells of the root.

New cards
20

Arbuscules

The branched hyphae of endomycorrhizae.

New cards
21

Ectomycorrhizae

Mycorrhizae that grow between and around the roots of trees and shrubs but do not enter root cells

New cards
22

fruiting body

In some fungi, a stalked, spore producing structure such as a mushroom

New cards
23

vegetative body

unicellular or multicellular thallus

New cards
24

ascus (pl. asci)

A saclike cell in ascomycetes (sac fungi) in which meiosis gives rise to haploid sexual spores (meiospores)

New cards
25

ascocarp

In ascomycete (sac) fungi, a reproductive body that bears or contains asci.

New cards
26

hymenium

fertile hyphal cell layer of the ascocarp; contains dikaryotic saclike cells called asci

New cards
27

Apothecium

cup-shaped ascocarp with the hymenium lining the cup and fully exposed on the outer surface

New cards
28

Perithecium

a "closed" flask-like ascocarp having a narrow opening, usually at the top

New cards
29

Cleistothecium

A completely closed ascocarp

New cards
30

Sporangia(um)

A multicellular organ in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid cells develop.

New cards
31

Conidium (pl. conidia)

An asexual spore produced by many species of ascomycetes

New cards
32

basidium (pl. basidia)

A small, club-shaped structure in which sexual spores of basidiomycetes arise.

New cards
33

basidiocarp

A fruiting body of a basidiomycete; mushrooms are examples.

New cards
34

mold

Asexual, spore-producing stage of many multicellular fungi

New cards
35

yeast

A single-celled fungus that reproduces by budding or fission

New cards
36

lichen

A single vegetative body that is the result of an association between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner, often an alga.

New cards
37

Decomposer

A small organism, such as a bacterium or fungus, that feeds on the remains of dead organisms, breaking down complex biological molecules or structures into simpler raw materials.

New cards
38

radial symmetry

A body plan of organisms in which structures are arranged regularly around a central axis, like spokes radiating out from the center of a wheel.

New cards
39

bilateral symmetry

The body plan of animals in which the body can be divided into mirror image right and left halves by a plane passing through the midline of the body.

New cards
40

blastula

The hollow ball of cells that is the result of cleavage divisions in an early embryo.

New cards
41

gastula

The developmental stage resulting when the cells of the blastula migrate and divide once cleavage is complete

New cards
42

Diploblastic

An animal body plan in which adult structures arise from only two cell layers, the ectoderm and the endoderm.

New cards
43

Triploblastic

An animal body plan in which adult structures arise from three primary germ layers, endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm.

New cards
44

Ectoderm

The outermost of the three primary germ layers of an embryo, which develops into epidermis and nervous tissue

New cards
45

mesoderm

The middle layer of the three primary germ layers of an animal embryo, from which the muscular, skeletal, vascular, and connective tissues develop.

New cards
46

Endoderm

The innermost of the three primary germ layers of an embryo, which develops into the gastrointestinal tract and, in some animals, the respiratory organs

New cards
47

Acoelomate

A body plan of bilaterally symmetrical animals that lack a body cavity between the gut and the body wall.

New cards
48

Pseudocoelomate

A body plan of bilaterally symmetrical animals with a body cavity that lacks a complete lining derived from mesoderm.

New cards
49

Coelomate

A body plan of bilaterally symmetrical animals that have a coelom

New cards
50

coelom

A fluid-filled body cavity in bilaterally symmetrical animals that is completely lined with derivatives of mesoderm.

New cards
51

hydrostatic skeleton

A structure consisting of muscles and fluid that, by themselves, provide support for the animal or part of the animal; no rigid support, such as a bone, is involved.

New cards
52

Choanocytes

One of the inner layers of flagellated cells lining the body cavity of a sponge.

New cards
53

Spicules

Found in sponges, these consist of inorganic materials and support the animal; can be chalk, silica, or organic material

New cards
54

mesohyl

in a sponge, a gelatinous extracellular region between the two layers of cells

New cards
55

Amoebocytes

Cells that move using pseudopods and perform different functions in different animals

New cards
56

Mesoglea

in cnidarians, the jellylike material located between the ectoderm and the endoderm

New cards
57

Cnidocytes

A prey-capturing and defensive cell in the epidermis of cnidarians; stinging and look like small harpoons

New cards
58

Nematocysts

specialized organelles within cnidocytes that eject a stinging thread containing toxins to be injected into the predator or prey

New cards
59

polyp

The tentacled, usually sessile stage in the life cycle of a cnidarian

New cards
60

Medusa

The tentacled, usually bell-shaped, free-swimming sexual stage in the life cycle of a cnidarian

New cards
61

monoecious

having both the male and female reproductive organs in the same individual; hermaphrodite.

New cards
62

dioecious

Having male and female reproductive organs in separate plants or animals

New cards
63

Scolex

the anterior end of a tapeworm, bearing suckers and hooks for attachment.

New cards
64

Proglottids

one of the segmental structures that make up most of a tapeworm's body; each produce thousands of fertilized eggs

New cards
65

Cephalization

the concentration of nerve tissue and sensory organs at the anterior end of an organism

New cards
66

spiral cleavage

The cleavage pattern in many protostomes in which newly produced cells lie in the space between the two cells immediately below them.

New cards
67

radial cleavage

A cleavage pattern in deuterostomes in which newly formed cells lie directly above and below other cells of the embryo.

New cards
68

determinate cleavage

A type of cleavage in protosomes in which each cell's developmental path is determined as the cell is produced

New cards
69

indeterminate cleavage

A type of cleavage, observed in many deuterostomes, in which the developmental fates of the first few cells produced by mitosis are not determined as soon as cells are produced.

New cards
70

blastospore

the first opening made during gastrulation - the point of invagination

New cards
71

schizocoelom

In protostomes, the body cavity that develops as inner and outer layers of mesoderm separate.

New cards
72

enterocoelom

In deuterostomes, the body cavity pinched off by outpocketings of the archenteron.

New cards
73

Mantle

One or two folds of the body wall that lines the shell and secretes the substance that forms the shell in mollusks

New cards
74

radulla

in a mollusk, a structure of tiny teeth used for scraping food particles off a surface and drawing them into the mouth.

New cards
75

foot

The muscular structure in the bodies of many mollusks that is responsible for crawling or burrowing locomotion.

New cards
76

visceral mass

In mollusks, the region of the body containing the internal organs

New cards
77

mantle cavity

A water-filled chamber that houses the gills, anus, and excretory pores of a mollusc.

New cards
78

septum (pl. septa)

A thin partition or cross wall that separates body segments.

New cards
79

closed circulatory system

A circulatory system in which the fluid, blood, is confined in blood vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid.

New cards
80

open circulatory system

An arrangement of the circulatory system in some invertebrates in which, when the heart contracts, arteries leaving the heart release a bloodlike fluid, hemolymph, directly into body spaces called sinuses that surround organs

New cards
81

metanephridia

The excretory tubules of most annelids and mollusks.

New cards
82

parapodia

Fleshy lateral extensions of the body wall of aquatic annelids, used for locomotion and gas exchange.

New cards
83

Clitellum

Broad, thickened segments of annelids that holds the sperm and eggs

New cards
84

Trachea

In insects, an extensively branched, airconducting tube formed by invagination of the outer epidermis of the animal, and reinforced by rings of chitin. In vertebrates, the windpipe, which branches into the bronchi.

New cards
85

Malpighian tubules

The main organ of excretion and osmoregulation in insects, helping them to maintain water and electrolyte balance.

New cards
86

antennae

Sensory structures that are able to detect air movement, vibrations, and smells

New cards
87

book lungs

Pocketlike respiratory organs found in some arachnids consisting of several parallel membrane folds arranged like the pages of a book.

New cards
88

cephalothorax

region of a crustacean formed by the fusion of the head with the thorax

New cards
89

chelicerae

The first pair of fanglike appendages near the mouth of an arachnid, used for biting prey and often modified for grasping and piercing

New cards
90

pedipalps

each of the second pair of appendages attached to the cephalothorax of most arachnids. They are variously specialized as pincers in scorpions, sensory organs in spiders, and locomotory organs in horseshoe crabs.

New cards
91

Simple eyes

eyes that can sense only movement and light/dark and cannot form images

New cards
92

compound eyes

The eye of most insects and some crustaceans, composed of many faceted, light-sensitive units called ommatidia fitted closely together, each having its own refractive system and each forming a portion of an image.

New cards
93

exoskeleton

A hard external covering of an animal's body that blocks the passage of water and provides support and protection.

New cards
94

postembryonic development

the period of development after embryogenesis

New cards
95

Ametabolous

young look like adult, only sexually immature, continue to molt after maturity

New cards
96

Hemimetabolous

young resemble adult but lack wings (external wing pads), cease molting at maturity

New cards
97

Nymphs

The immature form of insects that look like small adults without fully developed wings

New cards
98

Holometabolous

young quite different from adult; complete metamorphosis; egg, larva, pupa, adult

New cards
99

larva

an immature form of an animal that looks very different from the adult

New cards
100

pupa

an insect in the inactive stage of development (when it is not feeding) intermediate between larva and adult

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 178 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(8)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 72 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 111676 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(533)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard94 terms
studied byStudied by 64 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 174 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(11)
flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard193 terms
studied byStudied by 174 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard185 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 404 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)