kine 3p02 midterm

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Define stress

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183 Terms

1

Define stress

any condition that disrupts homeostasis

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2

What types of stress are there?

eustress and distress

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3

What is eustress?

positive stress that causes adaption (training effect)

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4

What is distress?

negative stress that causes damage, injury, or maladaptation

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5

who developed the general adaptation syndrome model and in what year

Hans seyle, 1936

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6

which systems are triggered in response to stress

endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, neural, muscular, immune, metabolic

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7

what are the 3 phases of stress adaption syndrome

alarm phase, resistance phase, exhaustion phase

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8

describe the alarm phase of sas

the period of initial reaction to a stress or stressor

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9

describe the resistance phase of sas

the period where the body adapts to eustress

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10

describe the exhaustion phase of sas

period where body maladapts to distress

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11

what is adaption

gain in cellular or system function that occurs as a result of exercise training and improves athletic performance, produces training effect

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12

factors affecting adaptive response

rest, nutrition, therapy (positive)

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13

drugs, alcohol, injury, travel, psychological stress (negative)

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14

define maladaptation

the loss in cellular or system function that occurs as a result of either excessive activity or excessive inactivity and which erodes athletic performance and health

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15

what is the FITT concept

frequency, intensity, time, type

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16

training load =

total volume x training intensity

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17

volume =

frequency x time

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18

what is training overload

achieved by manipulating any aspect of the training load

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19

what can high training load result from

high intensity training, high volume training, improving specificity, some combination of the three

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20

what determines adaptation/maladaptation

the total biological stress placed on the body via organized system of exercise training

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21

define underload

a training load below that needed to induce adaptations, form of distress, does not induce resistance phase

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22

define overload

a training load that induces adaptations, induces resistance phase, increased physiological function and performance, linear phase

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23

define over exercise

training loading excess of that needed to cause adaptation, induces exhaustion phase, maladaptations include injury lowered immune function acute or chronic sickness lowered health/function/performance

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24

what is the exercise dose response relationship

the change in training effect caused by differing levels of training, underload to overexercise

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25

what shape is the pharmaceutical dose response relationship

sigmoidal

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26

what is the asymptote on the exercise dose response

the training load is above that necessary to induce further adaptations

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27

Define habituation

the state of being fully adapted to a given training load, produces strength/fitness plateau, training no longer disrupts homeostasis

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28

describe the the study by Christensen 1931b

a standard exercise load gradually decreased exercise heart rate, further decrease in exercise HR required higher exercise intensity

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29

what are principles of training

rules pertaining to training with particular attention to training load

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30

why are training principles important

they increase training efficacy and safety, generally applicable

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31

who was the first practitioner

milo of Crete

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32

what is training progression

the relationship between the current training load and adaptation/habituation

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33

what is the positive exercise training possibilities

progression - overload - adaptation - close on maximum

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34

what is the negative exercise training possibilities

no progression - underload - habituation or reverse - depart from maximum

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35

what is the importance of overload

due to habituation, you must continuously increase the training stimulus to ensure overload

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36

what is the best guarantee that you are getting training effect

periodically increasing the training load

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37

when does habituation occur, assuming a constant training load

2 weeks

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38

what is the relationship between fitness level and fitness gain

inverse, rate of improvement slows down over time

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39

explain training sensitivity

the rate of improvement in fitness/performance when faced with a standard training load

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40

what determines training sensitivity

the interaction between how close you are to your genetic ceiling and your training genes

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41

What is the ceiling effect?

the training load that will produce peak fitness performance

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42

What is reversibility?

the reduction in physiological function and performance in response to a critical reduction or cessation of regular physical training

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43

what are thee key issues of reversibility

how long does it take for fitness to decline, what is influence of starting fitness level, strength vs. endurance, what happens when you resume training

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44

explain the rate of reversibility

fitness loss is a mirror if fitness gain with training

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45

how long does it take for profound detraining to occur

2-4 weeks

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46

what are the factors of reversibility

intra-individual, inter-individual, fitness type

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47

how do moderately trained people respond to detraining

lose all adaptations, peripheral slow component and central fast component

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48

how do highly trained people respond to detraining

lose all cardiovascular adaptations but not all muscle adaptations

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49

main points of reversibility

removal of overload reverses training effect

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50

describe how reversibility affects very fit people

the fitter you are the faster you lose fitness, however high fitness does make it take longer to detrain

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51

how is fitness lost with extended detraining

fast at first then occurs lower

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52

what is the half time of fitness recovery

approximately 2 weeks

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53

what determines retraining response

current fitness level

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54

describe the saltin bed rest study

examined VO2 responses to bed rest, 2 trained and 3 untrained males underwent 20 days bed rest and 55 days re-training, measured VO2 max before and after bedrest, used continuous and interval training at 80% VO2 max

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55

what were the results of the saltin study

trained individuals lost more fitness than the untrained, untrained regained fitness faster than trained

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56

determining factors of how identical exercise programs may produce different training outcomes in people

gender, age, initial fitness, injury history, obesity, general health, nutritional status, genes

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57

how much do genes account for differences in training

around 50%

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58

describe specificity of training

the biological stress or stimulus provided by exercise training specific to training method, nature of adaptation is specific to nature of stimulus

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59

what is training performance, and therefore performance related to

highly specific to how and wear you train

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60

describe the findings of the costill study

found that VO2 max depends on training mode

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61

Define contralateral

opposite side

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62

Define bilateral

both sides

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63

Define unilateral

one side

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64

software (central neuromuscular) factors include

recruitment, firing rate, synchronization, coactivation, reflex inhibition, rate of sEMG increase

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65

what does unilateral training increase

bilateral strength

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66

describe the tillin contraction type study

assessed the effect of contraction type on knee extensor torque, concentric/eccentric/isometric at two angles tested, evidence that concentric enhanced torque capacity most

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67

do strength gains transfer well

no, not to faster speeds or higher/lower angles

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68

what is concurrent training

a training program where endurance training and strength training are done simultaneously

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69

what is the interference effect

following guidelines for strength and endurance training may produce strength gains that are smaller than if strength training was done in isolation, peripheral adaptations can clash

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70

what does cardiorespiratory endurance training lead to

morphological and biomechanics adaptations that increase one or more indices of endurance performance

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71

what are the types of cardiorespiratory endurance training and how trainable is each

VO2max (acutely trainable), lactate threshold (chronically trainable), economy of movement (trainable?)

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72

what year was VO2max born

1923-25

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73

what is VO2max

the maximum rate of O2 consumption via oxidative phosphorylation during whole body dynamic exercise

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74

how is VO2max expressed in absolute and relative values

litres min-1 for absolute, mL kg-1 min-1 for relative

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75

how does VO2max increase and decrease

increases with activity/training, declines with inactivity and age

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76

what is the typical VO2max increase with 10-15 weeks of training

25%

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77

where is the greatest increase in vO2max observed and where is the smallest increase observed

greatest untrained/clinical populations, smallest trained populations

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78

what is the lactate threshold

intensity corresponding to onset of blood lactate accumulation that occurs during progressive whole body, dynamic exercise

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79

what is the lactate threshold expressed as

% VO2max, %max HR or in watts

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80

what it is the trainable range for untrained and trained

40-50% VO2max untrained, 70-80% VO2max

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81

how does lactate threshold compare to VO2max

LT responds more slowly than VO2max but continues to increase after VO2max has stopped increasing

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82

define running economy

the energy deman for a given velocity of running determined by steady state VO2 vs speed

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83

what does higher economy mean

a lower VO2 at a given speed for runners with same mass

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84

which two factors of FITT interact and how

higher intensity = lower volume

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85

what training frequency reaps the most benefits at 70% MHR

3-5

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86

what training intensity is best for general population

60-85%

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87

what training time is best for general population

30-120 mins

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88

what are the objectives of training general population

increase: fitness, function, health

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89

decrease: obesity, mortality, morbidity

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90

what is the FITT model for the competitive athlete

F = 5-6 per week

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91

I = 85-100% MHR

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92

T = sport dependent

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93

T= as specific as possible

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94

describe the relationship between intensity and VO2max

linear, up to about 85-90% of VO2max followed by reduced adaptation

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95

what are the two types of discontinuous training

interval and intermittent

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96

what is interval training

low intensity exercise between bouts of high intensity exercise

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97

what are some examples of interval training

fartlek, spinning, most team sports while in play

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98

what is intermittent training

no exercises between bouts of high intensity exercise

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99

what are some examples of intermittent training

tabata, HIIT, SIT, some team sports

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100

describe discontinuous training

repeated bouts of high intensity exercises separated by periods of rest

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