Construction 1 Midterm Final Review

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Zoning Ordinances

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104 Terms

1

Zoning Ordinances

-Governs the types of activities that may take place on a given piece of land,

-how much of the land may be covered by buildings

-how far buildings must be set back from adjacent property lines

-parking,

-floor area and height

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2

Building Codes

Protect Public health and safety

- sets minimum standards regarding: structural integrity, livability, quality of construction, accessibility, durability,

especially fire safety

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IBC (International Building Code)

predominant building code in the United States

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Sprinklers, Firewalls, more than 1/4 perimeter faces public ways or open spaces

3 ways to modify (expand) Building Code limitations

Answer:

Sprinklers, Firewalls, more than 1/4 perimeter faces public ways or open spaces

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5

Americans with Disabilities Act

What does ADA stand for?

- It makes accessibility to buildings a civil right of all Americans

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration

What does OSHA stand for?

- controls the design of workplaces to minimize hazards to the health and safety of workers.

- sets safety standards under which a building must be constructed.

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American Society for Testing and Materials

What does ASTM stand for?

- establishes standard specifications for commonly used materials and construction.

- provides shorthand designations for the quality of material that is required. (for example: C150 is code for "Portland Cement")

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Construction Specifications Institute

What does CSI stand for?

- it is the national association that creates standards to improve construction documents and project delivery.

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Masterformat

What is the standard outline created by the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) that is used to organize information?

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10

Joists

floors

<p>floors</p>
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Rafters

sloping roofs

<p>sloping roofs</p>
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sill

the horizontal bottom portion of a window or door.

<p>the horizontal bottom portion of a window or door.</p>
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studs

walls

<p>walls</p>
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14

sheathing

a key component that joins and stabilizes the frame.

- 4x8 panels that are nailed to the studs

-becomes the surface for interior and exterior finishes

<p>a key component that joins and stabilizes the frame.</p><p>- 4x8 panels that are nailed to the studs</p><p>-becomes the surface for interior and exterior finishes</p>
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15

increments of 4"

What is the typical spacing of framing elements?

- this is due to the 4x8 panels that are produced only in those dimensions, therefore the spacing must match the panels.

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housewrap

a synthetic sheet material with water-resistive and air-resistive properties used to provide a protective layer in an exterior wall assembly

<p>a synthetic sheet material with water-resistive and air-resistive properties used to provide a protective layer in an exterior wall assembly</p>
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17

Gable

Type of roof

<p>Type of roof</p>
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18

Hip

Type of Roof

<p>Type of Roof</p>
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19

Gambrel

Type of Roof

<p>Type of Roof</p>
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20

Stepped Gable

Type of roof

<p>Type of roof</p>
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21

Half-hip (chamfered)

Type of Roof

<p>Type of Roof</p>
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Mansard roof

Type of Roof

<p>Type of Roof</p>
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23

Eaves

roof edges that run parallel to the ground

<p>roof edges that run parallel to the ground</p>
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rakes

roof edge that goes from the eaves upward along the gable ends.

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ridge

top edge of the roof where the rafters rest

<p>top edge of the roof where the rafters rest</p>
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hip

formed by the meeting of two sloping roof surfaces going upward

<p>formed by the meeting of two sloping roof surfaces going upward</p>
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valley

a trough formed by the intersection of two roof slopes

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28

Pitch

the slope of the roof specified as rise to run.

- a 5:!2 slope means that for every 12" of run, there is 5" of rise.

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29

True (because of their greater ability to absorb heat)

True or False.

Large timbers catch fire and burn more slowly than smaller pieces of wood.

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30

1 hour

How long is the fire resistance rating of heavy timber?

along with steel, concrete, or masonry

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31

True

True or False.

Heavy timber can continue to support loads longer than unprotected steel.

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32

Anchorage

3 problems to be solved when timbers join concrete or masonry:

1. Protect beam from decay caused by moisture seeping through the wall - leave a ventilating airspace of at least 1/2 inch between masonry & all sides of the beam except the bottom

2. Under use, wood pulls away from wall - the wall must be anchored securely

3. Wood can pry the wall apart if it collapses- must be able to rotate freely by using a ledger board to attach the wood

Answer: Anchorage

(pg. 147)

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firecut beam

allows wood to move freely without breaking the wall in the event of a fire.

<p>allows wood to move freely without breaking the wall in the event of a fire.</p>
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cruck

curved timbers extending from the ground in the roof framework of a medieval type house

<p>curved timbers extending from the ground in the roof framework of a medieval type house</p>
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35

pintle

a metal device used to transmit compressive forces between superimposed columns in Mill construction

<p>a metal device used to transmit compressive forces between superimposed columns in Mill construction</p>
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36

mortise

A hole cut into a piece of wood that creates joinery and locks the parts together

<p>A hole cut into a piece of wood that creates joinery and locks the parts together</p>
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37

Tenon

A projecting piece of wood that locks in place in the cavity of another

<p>A projecting piece of wood that locks in place in the cavity of another</p>
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38

bent

each plane of columns, beams, rafters, and braces that is laid out on the floor and raised to position.

(pg. 151)

<p>each plane of columns, beams, rafters, and braces that is laid out on the floor and raised to position.</p><p>(pg. 151)</p>
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39

peg

holds the mortise and tenon joinery together

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40

Hardwoods

Type of wood that comes from Deciduous trees.

- larger cell-structure

-interesting patterns

- used for flooring, paneling furniture, and interior trim

Deciduous means fruit bearing/ flowering trees

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41

Soft woods

Type of wood that comes from Coniferous trees

- very uniform

- no grain patterns

- used for general construction

-plentiful and inexpensive

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42

Lumber

lengths of wood that are square, for use in construction

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43

Board

Cut wood that is less than 2 inches in nominal thickness is known as a _____________.

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44

Dimensional lumber

pieces of wood ranging from 2-4 inches in nominal thickness.

sold in 2 in. increments

<p>pieces of wood ranging from 2-4 inches in nominal thickness.</p><p>sold in 2 in. increments</p>
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45

Timber

wood that is 5 inches or more in nominal thickness

given in actual sizes

<p>wood that is 5 inches or more in nominal thickness</p><p>given in actual sizes</p>
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46

Glulam

Glue Laminated Wood

used for large structural members

produced by joining together many small trips of wood with glue

- more stable than solid lumber

- more efficient use of wood

<p>Glue Laminated Wood</p><p>used for large structural members</p><p>produced by joining together many small trips of wood with glue</p><p>- more stable than solid lumber</p><p>- more efficient use of wood</p>
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47

Trusses

structure that supports both roof and floor construction

<p>structure that supports both roof and floor construction</p>
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48

I-joists

-more efficient use of wood

- can span farther

- lighter in weight

- lengths up to 40 ft.

<p>-more efficient use of wood</p><p>- can span farther</p><p>- lighter in weight</p><p>- lengths up to 40 ft.</p>
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49

Scarf joints

diagonal joints used on glue-laminated woods

<p>diagonal joints used on glue-laminated woods</p>
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50

finger joints

zigzag joints used on glue-laminated woods

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51

4' x 8'

What is the typical wood panel size?

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52

common, box, casing, finish, brad

5 most common nail types

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53

Screws

spiral-threaded fasteners installed by turning action

<p>spiral-threaded fasteners installed by turning action</p>
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54

Bolts

used with washers and nuts for major structural connections

<p>used with washers and nuts for major structural connections</p>
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55

Common (box) nail

thinner nails used as structural connections in light frame construction

<p>thinner nails used as structural connections in light frame construction</p>
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56

toothed plates

connectors used for lightweight roof and floor trusses

<p>connectors used for lightweight roof and floor trusses</p>
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57

split ring connectors

connectors used often in heavy timber construction

<p>connectors used often in heavy timber construction</p>
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58

timber rivet connectors

connectors made up of large plates fastened to timber with spike-like rivets

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59

Plain-sawn

Sawing method that produces a variety of grain patters, wears unevenly, tends to have raised grain, shrinks and swells more in width,

most economical

<p>Sawing method that produces a variety of grain patters, wears unevenly, tends to have raised grain, shrinks and swells more in width,</p><p>most economical</p>
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60

Quarter-sawn

Sawing method that produces more even grain patterns, less warping, wears evenly, shrinks and swells more in thickness.

creates more waste and is more expensive

<p>Sawing method that produces more even grain patterns, less warping, wears evenly, shrinks and swells more in thickness.</p><p>creates more waste and is more expensive</p>
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61

Nominal Dimensions

<p></p>
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62

cross-laminated timber

Wood Products

- structural panels laminated from solid lumber

they may be used for floors, walls & roofs

ADVANTAGES

- produced in sizes not otherwise available

- lightweight and efficient

- rapid on-site assembly

<p>Wood Products</p><p>- structural panels laminated from solid lumber</p><p>they may be used for floors, walls & roofs</p><p>ADVANTAGES</p><p>- produced in sizes not otherwise available</p><p>- lightweight and efficient</p><p>- rapid on-site assembly</p>
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63

structural composite lumber

also called Engineered Lumber

- made by compacting layers of veneers or strands of wood

<p>also called Engineered Lumber</p><p>- made by compacting layers of veneers or strands of wood</p>
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64

Wood Plastic Composite

Made from wood or plastics

- used for exterior decking, railing, and trim (interior and exterior)

<p>Made from wood or plastics</p><p>- used for exterior decking, railing, and trim (interior and exterior)</p>
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Advantages and Disadvantages of plastic lumber over wood lumber

Answer: Advantages and Disadvantages of plastic lumber over wood lumber:

ADVANTAGES

- Resists sun, water, insects

- no coatings needed (maintenance free)

- durable

- non toxic

- good alternative to pressure treated lumber

DISADVANTAGES

- more flexible

- expands/ contracts more with temp change.

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66

span rating

the distance a building panel spans between supports

for example:

- 32/16 means that the panel may be used as roof sheathing over rafters spaced 32" o.c. and as subflooring over joists spaced 16".

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face nail, end nail, toe nail

3 methods of fastening nails

<p>3 methods of fastening nails</p>
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68

Dead load

the combined weight of the building itself and the foundation, including the permanent equipment

<p>the combined weight of the building itself and the foundation, including the permanent equipment</p>
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Live load

nonpermanent loads caused by the weights of the buildings occupants, furnishings and movable equipment

<p>nonpermanent loads caused by the weights of the buildings occupants, furnishings and movable equipment</p>
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70

Rain and Snow Load

type of load that acts primarily downward on building roofs.

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71

Wind Load

type of load which can act laterally (sideways), downward, or upward on a building.

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Seismic Load

highly dynamic horizontal and vertical forces caused by the motion of the ground relative to the building during an earthquake.

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73

below frost line

Where should foundations be built in relationship to the Frost Line?

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74

Shallow and Deep

2 types of foundations

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75

Shallow Frost-Protected Foundations

footings placed closer to the ground surface but insulated in such a way that the ground underneath them cannot freeze. (pg. 52)

- continuous layers of insulation board are placed around the perimeter of the building in such a way that heat flowing into the soil in winter from the interior of the building maintains the soil beneath the footings at a temperature above freezing.

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76

frictional or cohensionless

Soils that rely primarily on internal friction for strength are called ________________________________ or __________________________________

- coarse-grained soil like sand or gravel

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cohesive

clay soils that tend to stick together are characterized as ____________________ rather than frictional.

(sticks together)

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78

rock, gravel, sand

3 Examples of Good Soil types to build on

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79

silt, clay

2 Examples of Poor Soil types to build on

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80

sloped excavation

if the construction site is sufficiently larger than the area to be covered by the building the edges of the excavation can be sloped back at a low enough angle that the soil will not slide back into the hole.

<p>if the construction site is sufficiently larger than the area to be covered by the building the edges of the excavation can be sloped back at a low enough angle that the soil will not slide back into the hole.</p>
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81

shoring

construction used to support the sides of an excavation and prevent its collapse.

For large excavations the most common types of shoring are soldier beams and lagging, and sheet piling.

pg. 40

<p>construction used to support the sides of an excavation and prevent its collapse.</p><p>For large excavations the most common types of shoring are soldier beams and lagging, and sheet piling.</p><p>pg. 40</p>
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82

slurry wall

a complex method of constructing a complete steel-reinforced, concrete wall in the ground before excavation takes place.

<p>a complex method of constructing a complete steel-reinforced, concrete wall in the ground before excavation takes place.</p>
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83

soldier beams and lagging

Type of shoring that uses steel columns driven vertically into the earth at close intervals around an excavation site before digging begins.

As earth is removed heavy wooden planks are placed against the flanges of the columns to retain the soil outside the excavation.

<p>Type of shoring that uses steel columns driven vertically into the earth at close intervals around an excavation site before digging begins.</p><p>As earth is removed heavy wooden planks are placed against the flanges of the columns to retain the soil outside the excavation.</p>
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84

Sheeting (or sheet piling)

Type of shoring that consists of vertical sheets of various materials that are aligned tightly against one another edge-to-edge and driven into the earth to form a solid wall before excavation begins

- usually steel sheets but might be wood, aluminum, PVC plastic, composite polymers or precast concrete.

<p>Type of shoring that consists of vertical sheets of various materials that are aligned tightly against one another edge-to-edge and driven into the earth to form a solid wall before excavation begins</p><p>- usually steel sheets but might be wood, aluminum, PVC plastic, composite polymers or precast concrete.</p>
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85

shotcrete

Stiff concrete mixture that is sprayed directly from a hose onto the soil shortly after the soil is excavated.

- the hardened concrete reinforces the slope and protects against erosion.

<p>Stiff concrete mixture that is sprayed directly from a hose onto the soil shortly after the soil is excavated.</p><p>- the hardened concrete reinforces the slope and protects against erosion.</p>
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deep, shallow

2 types of foundations

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Shallow

Type of foundation that transfers load to the earth at the base of a building's columns/walls

- must be built on undisturbed soil and below the frost line

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Spread footing

A type of shallow foundation that takes concentrated loads and spreads them out over a large area of soil.

<p>A type of shallow foundation that takes concentrated loads and spreads them out over a large area of soil.</p>
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89

Wall Footing (or strip footing)

Type of Shallow foundation(spread footing) that is a continuous strip of concrete that spreads the load to a larger area

<p>Type of Shallow foundation(spread footing) that is a continuous strip of concrete that spreads the load to a larger area</p>
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90

Column footing

Type of Shallow foundation (spread footing) that transfers load from building column to soil area large enough to support it.

<p>Type of Shallow foundation (spread footing) that transfers load from building column to soil area large enough to support it.</p>
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Slab on Grade

Least expensive type of shallow foundation with thickened edges.

- used for 1-2 story high buildings

- used when there is a high water table and for climates with little to no frost.

<p>Least expensive type of shallow foundation with thickened edges.</p><p>- used for 1-2 story high buildings</p><p>- used when there is a high water table and for climates with little to no frost.</p>
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92

Crawl space (basement)

Type of shallow foundation supported by strip footings when the floor is raised above the ground.

-allows better access to piping and wiring.

<p>Type of shallow foundation supported by strip footings when the floor is raised above the ground.</p><p>-allows better access to piping and wiring.</p>
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stepped footing

Example of shallow foundation used when buildings are on a slope

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combined footings and cantilevered footings

Foundations cannot extend beyond property lines. In these cases ___________________________________ and _______________________________ are used to balance the footing design.

(pg. 53 F.2.33)

<p>Foundations cannot extend beyond property lines. In these cases ___________________________________ and _______________________________ are used to balance the footing design.</p><p>(pg. 53 F.2.33)</p>
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95

Mat/Raft foundation

where bearing capacity of the soil is low it is more economical to merge column footings into a single mat that supports the entire building.

<p>where bearing capacity of the soil is low it is more economical to merge column footings into a single mat that supports the entire building.</p>
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96

Deep foundation

type of foundation that extends below poor soil to more competent soils or rock

<p>type of foundation that extends below poor soil to more competent soils or rock</p>
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97

Caisson

Also known as a "drilled pier"

- it is similar to column footing but reaches through poor soil to acceptable soil.

<p>Also known as a "drilled pier"</p><p>- it is similar to column footing but reaches through poor soil to acceptable soil.</p>
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98

Socketed Caisson

a type of caisson that is drilled into the rock rather than belled at the bottom.

<p>a type of caisson that is drilled into the rock rather than belled at the bottom.</p>
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99

Pile

similar to caissons, but driven into soil rather than drilled or poured.

- might be made of timber (more economical for lightly loaded foundations) or made of steel.

<p>similar to caissons, but driven into soil rather than drilled or poured.</p><p>- might be made of timber (more economical for lightly loaded foundations) or made of steel.</p>
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100

design thresholds

1. Building below the water table

2. Building Close to an existing structure

3. Building a heavier load beyond what the soil can support

These are 3 _______________________________ to take into account when designing a foundation.

- the make foundations more expensive and difficult to construct.

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