Envirothon Forestry

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526 Terms

1

Bark

Protects

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Phloem

Transport Food

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3

Cambium

Growth

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Sapwood

Transports Water

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Heartwood

Support

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Tree starts growing properly again.

The rings become farther apart.

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7

Scratchy rings, they get fuzzy.

Fire, but tree survived.

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Rings are close together.

Insects, no proper nutrients, dry spell.

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9

Rings wider on one side.

Something leaned on the tree.

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Lobed

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Entire

gf

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Forest Types

Categories defined by their predominant tree species.

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Beech/Maple

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Appalachian Oak Forest

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Northern Hardwood

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Hickory-Oak-Pine

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Mixed Mesophytic

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Factors that determine forest type.

Temperature, Rain, Topography.

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19

Alternate Leaves

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Opposite Leaves

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Whorled Leaves

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Parts of a Compound Leaf.

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Simple Leaf

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Pinnately

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Palmately

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Red Oak VS White Oak

Red Oak: Smooth, green brown bark when young. Divided into round ridges when older.

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White Oak: Pale gray, scaly, not deeply fissured.

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Pioneer Species

First to come in new forest growth.

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Honeysuckle

Creates dense shrubs that shades the natives. Can release toxins.

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Multiflora Rose

Dense woods, prairies, stream banks, roadsides, open fields, pastures.

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Most Common PA Trees

Red Maple and Black Birch

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Fire Season

Spring and Fall

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Flooring Types

Sugar Maple and Red Maple

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34

Baseball Bats

Ash

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35

Wine Barrels

White Oak

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State Flower

Mountain laurel

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37

State Tree

Eastern Hemlock

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38

Cubic Feet in a Cord of Firewood

123ft^3

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Red Oak

Ski Trails

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40

One Board Foot

One Foot x One Foot x One Inch

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Shade Tolerant Trees

Sugar Maple

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Hemlock

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American Beech

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Shade Intolerant Trees

Black Cherry

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Black Locust

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Poplar

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Aspen

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Pitch Pine

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Canopy Crown Levels

Dominant, Codominant, Intermediate, Suppressed.

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What do you need at all times during a timber harvest?

Erosion and Sedimentation plan on site.

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PA FORESTS

Corporate 10%

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Private 70%

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Public 20%

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Honey Locust

Gleditsia triacanthos

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Bad Harvest Methods.

Diameter Limit, keeps inferior trees.

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Selective Harvest.

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Hi-grade.

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Two Types

Even Age

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Uneven Age

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Timber Harvest

Clear cuts are good if there are enough seedlings.

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First Year

Annual grasses, ragweed, horseweed, non-native weeds.

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Second to Fifth Year

Queen Anne's Lace, Knapweed.

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Third to Tenth

Woody Shrubs, Blackberries, Green Brier.

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Tenth to Twentieth

Pioneer saplings from thickets. Pine, Locust, Aspen.

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Twentieth to Seventieth

Long lived trees, Tulip, Ash, Red Maple, Black Birch.

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Seventieth to One Hundred Plus

Long Lived Hardwoods. Hickory, Oak, Maple.

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A wedge prism

Estimate the amount of basal area

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(Basal area is the common term used to describe the average amount of an area (usually an acre) occupied by tree stems.)

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Pioneer species

Tree species that are typically the first ones to inhabit disturbed or damaged areas

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Biltmore stick

measures the tree

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71

Pulaski axe

used to cut fire lines

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Drip Torch

Mix half diesel half gas

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Increment Borer

Used to extract cores of wood from trees

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Fire shelter

is a safety device of last resort used by wild land firefighters

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Council Fire Rake

is used to rake flammable objects so fire cannot spread

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annual rings

the layers of wood a tree adds each season; also called

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growth rings. These rings frequently are visible when a tree is cut and can be used to estimate its age and growth rate

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caliper

a tool to measure the diameter of a tree

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clinometer

an instrument used to determine the height of a tree

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cord

a unit of wood cut for fuel that is equal to a stack 4 x 4 by 8 feet or 128 cubic feet. A cord is the legal measure of fuelwood volume in Maryland

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cull

a sawtimber sized tree that has no timber value as a result of poor shape or damage from injury, insects or disease

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growth rings

the layers of wood a tree adds each season; also called

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annual rings. These rings frequently are visible when a tree is cut and can be used to estimate its age and growth rate

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hypsometer

any of several tools or instruments designed to measure the

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height of trees. The clinometer is such a tool

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increment borer

an augerlike tool with a hollow bit designed to extract

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cores from tree stems for the determination of age and growth rate

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log rule

a method for calculating wood volume in a tree or log by using

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its diameter and length. The international 1/4-inch rule is the legal rule in Maryland

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scale stick

a calibrated stick used to estimate wood volume in a log

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Select Cut

Removing certain individual trees in a stand. May be done by size, species or health of the trees.

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Clear Cut

Removing most or all of the existing stand of trees.

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Diameter tape

Measuring tape calibrated to measure the diameter of a tree.

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Log

when used to measure the height standing trees, equals 16 feet

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Chain

66 Feet; commonly used distance measurement for forestry activities

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Inner Bark

Conductive vessels that carry food made in the leaves down to the branches, truck, and roots

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Outer Bark

Protects tree from injuries

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Cambium

A thin layer of cells, directly under the bark where active growth takes places.

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Xylem

Commonly known as sapwood; the outer portion of the woody tree truck that transports

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water and minerals from the roots to the leaves

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