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Heart, Blood Vessels, Blood

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Heart, Blood Vessels, Blood

COMPONENTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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Vein

toward the heart

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Artery

away from the heart

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size of a fist and weighs less than 1 lb.

Size and weight of heart

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between lungs in thoracic cavity (mediastinum)

Location of heart

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apex (bottom) towards left side

Orientation of heart

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Pericardium

double-layered sac that anchors and protects heart

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Parietal pericardium

membrane around heart's cavity

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Visceral pericardium

membrane on heart's surface

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Pericardial cavity

space around the heart. Inside is pericardial fluid (prevents friction in our heart)

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Epicardium

surface of heart (outside)

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Myocardium

thick, (middle) layer composed of cardiac muscle

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Endocardium

smooth, (inner) surface of heart

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CARDIOMYOCYTES

Cells of cardiac muscle/ heart

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Ca2+ and ATP

used for contractions of heart

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Left atrium (LA), Right atrium (RA), Left ventricle (LV), Right ventricle (RV)

4 chambers of heart

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Coronary sulcus

separates atria from ventricles

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ATRIA

Upper portion; Holding chambers (receiving chambers); Small, thin walled; Contract minimally to push blood into ventricles

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Interatrial septum

separates right and left atria

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VENTRICLES

Lower portion; Pumping chambers; Thick, strong walled; Contract forcefully to propel blood out of heart

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Interventricular septum

separates right and left ventricles

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VALVES

Structure that ensure 1 way blood flow

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ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES (AV)

Between atria and ventricles

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Tricuspid valve

AV valve between RA and RV; 3 cusps

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Bicuspid valve (mitral)

AV valve between LA and LV; 2 cusps

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CHORDAE TENDINEAE (HEART STRINGS)

Attached to AV valve flaps; Support valves

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Pulmonary valve

base of pulmonary trunk

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Aortic valve

base of aorta

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TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY

Broken heart syndrome; heart strings are destroyed because of intense emotions.

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CARDIOMEGALY

Increase in size of the heart. An enlarged heart is when your heart is abnormally thick or overly stretched, becoming larger than usual, with difficulty pumping blood.

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Blood flows from LA into LV; Aortic semilunar valve is closed; Tension on chordae tendineae is low

What happens when the Bicuspid valve is Open?

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Blood flows from LV into aorta; Aortic semilunar valve is one; Tension on chordae tendineae is high

What happens when the Bicuspid valve is closed?

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Pulmonary circuit

Carries blood from heart to lungs; Blood is O2 poor, CO2 rich

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RIGHT ATRIUM

Receives blood from 3 places (vena cavas and coronary sinus)

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Superior vena cava

Drains blood above diaphragm (head, neck, thorax, upper limbs)

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Inferior vena cava

Drains blood below diaphragm (abdominopelvic cavity and lower limbs)

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Coronary sinus

Drains blood from myocardium

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RIGHT VENTRICLE

Opens into pulmonary trunk

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Pulmonary trunk

Splits into right and left pulmonary arteries

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Pulmonary arteries

Carry blood away from heart to lungs

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Systemic circuit

Carries blood from heart to body; Blood is O2 rich, CO2 poor

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LEFT ATRIUM

4 openings (pulmonary veins) that receive blood from lungs

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LEFT VENTRICLE

Opens into aorta; Thicker, contracts more forcefully, higher blood pressure than right ventricle has to get to body

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AORTA

Carries blood from LV to body

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Blood in the heart chambers

does not nourish the myocardium

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The heart

has its own nourishing circulatory system

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CORONARY ARTERIES

Supply blood to heart wall; Supply the capillaries of the myocardium with blood; Originate from base of aorta (above semilunar valve)

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Right Coronary Artery

Originates at the right side of the aorta; Supply most blood to the right ventricle; Posterior interventricular artery, Right marginal artery

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Left Coronary Artery

Has 3 branches; Anterior interventricular artery, Circumflex artery, Left marginal artery; Supplies the anterior wall of the heart and most of left ventricle

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CARDIAC VEINS

Drain blood from cardiac muscle; Some small cardiac veins drain directly into the right atrium

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CORONARY SINUS

a large vein located within the coronary sulcus into the right atrium; returns blood to the right atrium.

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THE HEART

Conduction system

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Sinoatrial Node

"pacemaker" initiates each heart beat; 60 to 100/min

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Atrioventricular Node

junction of the atria and ventricles

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Atrioventricular Bundle

in the interventricular septum

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Bundle (Right and Left) Branches

in the interventricular septum

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Purkinje Fibers

spread within the ventricle wall muscles

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pacemaker potential

Changes in membrane channels' permeability are responsible for producing action potentials and is called

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Depolarization Phase

Na+ channels open; Ca2+ channels open

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Plateau Phase

Na+ channels close; Some K+ channels open; Ca2+ channels remain open

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Repolarization Phase

K+ channels open; Ca2+ channels close

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Plateau phase

prolongs action potential by keeping Ca2+ channels open.

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2 msec

In skeletal muscle action potentials tak

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200-500 msec.

in cardiac muscle they take

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CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF HEART

Contraction of atria and ventricles by cardiac muscle cells

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Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)

In right atrium; Where action potential originates; Functions as pacemaker; Large number of Ca2+ channels

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Sinoatrial node, Atrioventricular node, Atrioventricular bundle, Right and Left Bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

PATH OF ACTION POTENTIAL THROUGH HEART

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ELECTROCARDIOGRAM

Record of electrical events in heart; Diagnosis cardiac abnormalities; Uses electrodes; Contains P wave, QRS complex, T wave

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P wave

depolarization of atria

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QRS complex

depolarization of ventricles; contains Q, R, S waves

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T wave

repolarization of ventricles

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Heart

is 2 side by side pumps: right and left

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Atria

primers for pump

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Ventricles

power pumps

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CARDIAC CYCLE

Repetitive pumping action which includes contraction and relaxation; Cardiac muscle contractions produce pressure changes within heart chambers

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Pressure changes

are responsible for blood movement

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of high to low pressure

Blood moves from areas

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Atrial systole

contraction of atria

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Ventricular systole

contraction of ventricles

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Atrial diastole

relaxation of atria

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Ventricular diastole

relaxation of ventricles

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Stethoscope

is used to hear lung and heart sounds

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lubb

First sound is

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dupp

second is

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Sounds

result from opening and closing valves

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Murmurs

are due to faulty valves

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Stroke Volume

Volume of blood pumped per ventricle per contraction; 70 ml/beat

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Heart Rates

Number of heart beats in 1 min.; 72 beats/min.

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Cardiac Output

Volume of blood pumped by a ventricle in 1 min.; 5 L/min.

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INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEART

Mechanisms contained within heart

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Venous return

amount of blood that returns to heart

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Preload

degree ventricular walls are stretched at end of diastole

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Starlings Law of the Heart

Relationship between preload and stroke volume; Ex. exercise increases venous return, preload, stroke volume, and cardiac output

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Afterload

pressure against which ventricles must pump blood

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EXTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEART

Mechanisms external to heart; Nervous or chemical regulation

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Baroreceptor Reflex

Mechanism of nervous system which regulates heart function; keeps heart rate and stroke volume in normal range

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baroreceptors

monitor blood pressure aorta and carotid arteries (carry blood to brain)

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changes in blood pressure

cause changes in frequency of action potentials; involves medulla oblongata

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Chemoreceptor Reflex

chemicals can affect heart rate and stroke volume

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epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal medulla

can increase heart rate and stroke volume

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