Endocrine System

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the _____ system is a communicator system that monitors slower acting responses

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1

the _____ system is a communicator system that monitors slower acting responses

endocrine

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2

endocrine secretions involve cells secreting hormones into the _____

bloodstream

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3

exocrine secretions involve cells secreting hormones into _____

ducts

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4

_____ secretions involve cells secreting hormones to neighboring cells

paracrine

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5

_____ secretions involve cells secreting hormones to themselves

autocrine

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6

hormones bind to very specific _____

receptors

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7

a single type of hormone can elicit _____ in the body

multiple/different effects

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8

hormones are _____ (faster/slower) acting than electrical signals

slower

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9

what are the three different types of hormones?

peptide; steroid; amino-acid derived

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10

_____ hormones are made of short amino-acid chains

peptide

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11

where are peptide hormones synthesized?

the rough ER

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12

peptide hormones include

all hormones from the hypothalamus & anterior pituitary; glucagon & insulin; calcitonin & PTH

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13

peptide hormones (are/are not) H2O soluble, so they (do/do not) need carriers to travel through the blood

are; do not

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14

peptide hormones _____ (directly/indirectly) stimulate receptor cells - why?

indirectly; peptide hormones are not lipid soluble, so they can't pass through the phospholipid bilayer. They bind to a receptor on the cell surface to trigger changes/secondary messengers in a cell

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15

secondary messengers are produced by _____ (direct/indirect) stimulation of receptor cells

indirect

(such as with peptides)

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16

what are some common secondary messengers?

cAMP; IP3; DAG; Ca2+

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17

what are the three main receptors peptide hormones will bind to indirectly stimulate target cells?

G protein-coupled receptors; receptor tyrosine kinases; ligand-gated ion channels

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18

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a type of _____ (location) receptor that can trigger _____

cell surface; 2nd messengers

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19

GPCRs consists of _____ transmembrane domains that pass back and forth through the cell membrane

7

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20

G proteins _____ (activate/deactivate) other substrates

activate

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21

what are the G protein subunits?

alpha, beta and gamma subunits

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22

insulin acts through _____ and 2nd messengers

receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)

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23

RTKs will _____ & _____ when their hormone binds to them

dimerize, cross-phosphorylate

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24

peptide hormones can also bind to _____-gated ion channels

ligand

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25

what happens once a ligand binds a ligand-gated ion channel?

the channel changes its shape to allow certain ions to pass through

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26

_____ hormones are 4-ring structures that belong in the same family as lipids

steroid

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27

where are steroid hormones synthesized?

smooth ER

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28

steroid hormones include

all adrenal cortex and reproductive organ hormones

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29

steroid hormones are _____ (lipid-soluble/lipid-insoluble)

lipid-soluble (hydrophobic)

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30

steroid hormones require a _____ to travel in the blood

carrier

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31

steroid hormones _____ (can/cannot) pass directly through the cell membrane

can

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32

steroid hormones _____ (directly/indirectly) stimulate receptor cells

directly

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33

do peptide hormones or steroid hormones have a slower action time?

steroid hormones

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34

steroids trigger changes from a _____ level

transcriptional

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35

what is the main amino acid of amino acid derived hormones?

tyrosine

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36

where are amino acid derived hormones synthesized

rough ER and cytosol

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37

what are the main amino acid derived hormones?

all hormones made by the adrenal medulla; T3 and T4; melatonin

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38

epinephrine and norepinephrine are amino acid derived hormones that act similarly to _____ hormones

peptide

(indirect stimulation)

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39

T3 and T4 are amino acid derived hormones that act similarly to _____ hormones

steroid (direct stimulation)

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40

the hypothalamus is involved with maintaining _____

homeostasis

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41

what are the two lobes of the pituitary gland?

anterior and posterior

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42

the _____ is an extension of neurons from the hypothalamus also known as the _____

posterior pituitary; neurohypophysis

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43

which two hypothalamic hormones does the posterior pituitary store and release

ADH; oxytocin The posterior pituitary does not produce these hormones

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44

antidiuretic hormone (_) targets _ of the kidney to reabsorb water and increase blood volume/pressure

ADH/vasopressin; nephrons

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45

ADH/vasopressin is made by the _____ and stored in the _____

hypothalamus; posterior pituitary

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46

oxytocin targets the _____ and _____

uterus; mammary glands

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47

oxytocin provides positive feedback for _____ and _____

labor contractions; milk letdown

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48

oxytocin is made by the _____ and is stored in the _____

hypothalamus; posterior pituitary gland

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49

the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) is made of _____ tissue, so it _____ hormones

glandular; produces its own

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50

the _____ connects the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus

hypophyseal portal system

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51

a _____ is when a capillary bed is connected to another capillary bed through a portal vein

portal system

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52

what are some of the key hypothalamic-releasing hormones, which act on the anterior pituitary (telling it to release the hormones it makes)

GnRH; TRH; CRH; GRH Mnemonic

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53

what are the effects of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus?

tells the anterior pituitary to release LH and FSH to the gonads

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54

what are the effects of TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus?

tells the anterior pituitary to release TSH to our thyroid glands

(also stimulates the anterior pituitary to release prolactin)

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55

what are the effects of CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus?

tells the anterior pituitary to release ACTH

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56

what are the effects of GHRH (growth hormone-releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus?

tells the anterior pituitary to release GH

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57

what are the two classes of hormones released by the anterior pituitary?

tropic and direct

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58

_____ hormones target and act on other endocrine glands

tropic

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59

_____ hormones stimulate/act on organs

direct

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60

follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a _____ hormone from the _____

tropic; anterior pituitary

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61

follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates _____ and _____

follicle growth (ovary); sperm maturation (testis)

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62

luteinizing hormone (LH) is a _____ hormone from the _____

tropic; anterior pituitary

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63

luteinizing hormone (LH) triggers _____ and the production of _____

ovulation; sex hormones

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64

stress leads to the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is a _____ hormone from the _____

tropic; anterior pituitary

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65

ACTH stimulates the adrenal _____ to release _____ to combat stress

cortex; glucocorticoids

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66

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a _____ hormone from _____, which stimulates the thyroid to produce T3 & T4

tropic; anterior pituitary

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67

T3 & T4 are regulated by _____ feedback

negative

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68

prolactin is a _____ hormone from the _____

direct; anterior pituitary

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69

what are the two phases of prolactin effects?

stimulates mammary gland development during pregnancy; increases milk production after birth

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70

growth hormone (GH) is a _____ hormone from the _____, which stimulates cell growth, reproduction, division

direct; anterior pituitary

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71

another name for GH is _____

somatotropin

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72

what is an acronym to remember the hormones the anterior pituitary gland produces?

FLAT PiG

  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

  • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

  • Prolactin

  • ignore

  • Growth Hormone (GH)

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73

the _____ is a small gland in the brain that secretes melatonin

pineal gland

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74

_____ regulates the circadian rhythm

melatonin

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75

the largest endocrine organ in the body is the _____, which is located in front of the trachea

thyroid gland

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76

what three hormones are manufactured/secreted by the thyroid gland?

T3, T4, and calcitonin

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77

T4 has one more _____ atom than T3

iodine

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78

T3 is the _____ form of the hormone

active (4x more potent than T4)

(T4 loses an iodine atom to become active T3)

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79

which hormone (T4 or T3) is the main circulating form and why?

T4; it is more stable

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80

under-secretion of T3 and T4 leads to _____ & a(n) _____ (increased/decreased) metabolic rate

hypothyroidism; decreased

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81

over-secretion of T3 and T4 leads to _____ & a(n) _____ (increased/decreased) metabolic rate

hyperthyroidism; increased

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82

hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism can cause _____, which is the physical enlargement of the thyroid gland

goiter

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83

where is calcitonin secreted?

parafollicular cells of the thyroid

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84

what are the main functions of calcitonin?

decrease blood calcium

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85

calcitonin stimulates _____ and inhibits _____ (cell types)

osteoblasts; osteoclasts

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86

what is calcitonin's effect on the kidneys and intestines?

it decreases Ca2+ reabsorption in these areas

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87

what hormone does the opposite function of calcitonin?

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

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88

from where is PTH secreted?

parathyroid gland

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89

what is the primary function of PTH/the parathyroid gland?

increase blood calcium level

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90

PTH stimulates _____ and _____ (increases/decreases) Ca2+ reabsorption in the kidneys and intestines

osteoclasts; increases

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91

the pancreas has _____ and _____ functions

exocrine; endocrine

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92

the _____ tissue of the pancreas secretes digestive enzymes through the pancreatic duct

exocrine

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93

where does the pancreatic duct connect to?

duodenum of the small intestine

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94

the _____ are endocrine pancreatic tissue

islets of Langerhans

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95

what are the three key islet of Langerhans hormones?

insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin

(somatostatin =/= somatotropin (GH))

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96

The ____ releases insulin and glucagon to help maintain glucose concentration in the blood.

pancreas

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97

what are the three key islet of Langerhans cell types?

alpha (α); beta (β); delta cells (δ)

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98

alpha (α) cells of islets secrete _____

glucagon

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99

when is glucagon secreted from the alpha (α) cells of the islets?

during a low blood glucose level (typically during fasting or between meals)

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100

what is the function of glucagon secreted from the alpha (α) cells of the islets?

increase blood glucose levels

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