hbs unit 5

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What are the functions of the skin?

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126 Terms

1

What are the functions of the skin?

the skin is the first line of defense against pathogens, helps balance water levels, and keep organs protected

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2

What types of tissue make up layers of the skin?

epidermis, dermis, subsequent subcutaneous later of fat `

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3

What role do accessory organs such as sweat glands and sebaceous glands play in the skin?

sweat glands secret sweat, which helps to expel water from the body and also to maintain a healthy body temperature, as well as moisturize skin

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4

What happens to skin as it is exposed to sunlight and as a person ages?

the melanonyctes in the skin secrete more melanin in order to protect skin from sunlight

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5

which layers of the skin are damaged in different types of burns?

1- epi 2- epi and part derm 3-all term and fat 4- epi derm muscle bone

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6

How does burn damage in the skin affect other functions in the body?

Cardio- toxic fluid leak in blood vessels

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7

Nervous- nerve endings unable to signal ``

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8

How do medical professionals in different fields assist with burn care and rehabilitation?

skin grafts, you know it

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9

What role does pain play in the human body?

draws attention to certain area that may have damage

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10

How does the body interpret and process pain?

all parts of the brain help in the process of pain

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11

Why would the inability to feel pain actually put the human body in danger?

there could be more damage to the body, and the body would not be alerted to the dangerous situation

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12

Collagen

an insoluble fibrous protein of vertebrates that is the chief constituent of the fibrils of connective tissue (as in skin and tendons) and of the organic substance of bones

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13

Connective tissue

animal tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, having a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix

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14

Dermis

the sensitive vascular inner mesodermic layer of skin

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15

Elastin

a protein that is similar to collagen and is the chief constituent of elastic fibers

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16

Endorphin

a hormone produced in the brain and anterior pituitary that inhibits pain perception

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17

Epidermis

the outer nonsensitive and nonvascular layer of skin of a vertebrate that overlies the dermis

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18

Epithelium

a membranous cellular tissue that covers a free surface or lines a tube or cavity of an animal body and serves especially to enclose and protect the other parts of the body, to produce secretions and excretions, and to function in assimilation.

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19

Exocrine gland

a gland (as a sweat gland, a salivary gland, or a kidney) that release a secretion external to our at the surface of an organ by means of a canal or duct

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20

First degree burn

a mild burn characterized by heat, pain, and reddening of the burned surface but not exhibiting blistering or charring of tissues

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21

Keratin

any of various sulfur-containing fibrous proteins that form the chemical basis of epidermal tissues and are not typically digested by enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract

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22

Melanin

any of various black, dark brown, radish brown, or yellow pigments of animal or plant structures

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23

Pain

Basic bodily sensation that is induced by a noxious stimulus, is received by naked nerve endings, is characterized by physical discomfort, and typically leads to evasive action

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24

Sebaceous gland

any of the small sacculated glands lodged in the substance

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25

Second Degree Burn

a burn marked by pain, blistering, and superficial destruction of ermis with edema and hyperemia of the tissues beneath the burn

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26

Third degree burn

severe burn characterized by destruction of the skin through the depth of the dermis and possibly into underlying tissues, loss of fluid, and sometimes shock

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27

How does the skeletal system assist with protection in the body

the skeletal system physically protects the body by protecting internal organs form external force

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28

how doe the structure of compact bone differ from the structure of spongy bone

compact is sense and garder, spongy is less impact and more soft

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29

how does the overall structure of bone provide great strength and flexibility, but keep bone from being too bulky and heavy

compact bone is very strong, whereas spongy is flexible since it is light. the pores in the spongy allow it from being heavy

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30

what is an x-ray

a complex machine which allows for photos through the layers of skin and see conditions of bones

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31

what are the different type of bone fractures and how are they identified on x-rays

Comminuted: bone is in lots of pieces

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32

Depression: depression in bone with lots of cracks around it

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33

Compression: a malformed bone or a small crack in a bone that has two bones above and below it

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34

Transverse: straight line that has broken a bone

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35

Oblique: diagonal fracture of a bone

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Spiral: similar to oblique, but the bone pieces have twisted around each other

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Greenstick: the bone is not broken all of the way through and is bent.

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38

Open: fracture has caused the bone to pierce the skin

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39

Closed: fracture did not break the skin

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40

how can damage to a bone affect other human body systems

Open fracture can break off into small pieces and wrap an artery, hit a nerve and cause nerve damage, and cause puncture the skin, which could cause infection for immune system

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41

what is bone remodeling

The process a bone goes through after a fracture has broken it completely in order to be mended and return to a normal shape.

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42

What si the relationship between bone remodeling and blood calcium levels

As bone is remodeled after a fracture or some other form of trauma, osteoblasts and osteoclasts alternately work in order to restore the bone to its original shape. This means that the blood calcium levels will alternately increase and decrease depending on what stage of remodeling the bone is in and which bone cell is more active.

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43

How do hormones assist in the maintenance of healthy bone and the release of calcium to be used in other body processes

The parathyroid gland detects whether or not the level of blood calcium is too high or too low. If it is too high, the parathyroid releases the parathyroid hormone that subdues osteoclast activity so that the osteoblast draws more calcium from the blood to be stored in the bone. The thyroid gland releases calcitonin in order to increase the amount of osteoclasts that are active, forcing more calcium in the bones to be broken down and then released into the bloodstream in order to increase the blood calcium levels.

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44

bone marrow

a soft highly vascular modified connective tissue that occupies the vanities and cancellous part of most bones and occurs in two forms-yellow and red

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45

Bone remodeling

the continuous turnover of bone matrix and mineral that involves first, and increase in resorption and osteoclast activity, and later, reactive bone formation by osteoblast activity

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46

Calcitonin

a polypeptide hormone especially from the thyroid gland that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma

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47

Callus

a growth of new bone tissue in and around a fractured area, ultimately replaced by mature bone

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48

Cartilage

a usually translucent somewhat elastic tissue that composes most of the skeleton of vertebrate embryos and except for a small number of structures is replaced by bone drying ossification in the higher vertebrates

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49

Compact bone

bone tissue that contains few spaces between osteons; forms the external portion of all bones and the bulk of the diaphysis of long bones

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50

Diaphysis

shaft of long bone

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51

epiphysis

end of long bone, usually larger in diameter than the shaft

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52

fracture

breaking of hard tissue

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53

osteoblast

bone forming cell

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54

osteoclast

any of the large multinucleate cells closely associated with real of bone resorption

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55

osteocyte

cells that is characteristic of adult bone and is located in a lacuna of the bone substance

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56

parathyroid hormone

a hormone of the parathyroid gland that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body

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57

Spongy bone

bone tissue that consists of irregular lattice work of thin plates of bone called trabeculae

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58

What body systems function to protect the human body

respiratory, circulatory, digesive, immune and skeletal

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59

how does the structure of the lymphatic system relate to its function

humph nodes are thin walled, so as to facilitate the lymph to easily pass through and drop off debris in the blood

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60

what is an antigen

foreign substance that produces immune response to body

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61

what is an antibody

particle produced by body that marks foreign trespassers so that white blood cells can attack

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62

how do circulating antibodies protect a person from receiving incompatible blood during a transfusion

they target the antigens that have not been exposed before so that the person can be immune. aggulanation then occurs.

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63

what is specific immunity

Having certain cells/antibodies that have been exposed to a certain pathogen before so that they can specifically target that pathogen if it enters the body again.

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64

What role of lymphocytes play in specific immunity

Once a lymphocyte comes into contact with a pathogen, it clones and multiplies into multiple lymphocytes, some of which produce antibodies, and some become memory cells, so that the body can react to a specific pathogen if it enters the body again.

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65

how does your body react the second time it is exposed to a particular antigen

The antigen is detected by the immune system, which begins to produce more antibodies and more white blood cells. The antibodies work to mark and target the antigens, while the white blood cells work their hardest to destroy and get rid of the antigens.

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66

agglutination

clumping of microorganisms or blood cells, typically due to an antigen antibody interaction

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67

alleles

alternate forms of a single gene that control the same inherited trait and are located at the same position on homologous chromosomes

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68

antibody

an antigen binding immunoglobin produced by b cells, that functions as the effector in an immune response

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69

antigen

a foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism and elicits and immune response

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70

b lymphocyte

type of lymphocyte that develops in the bone marrow and later produces antibodies, which mediate humoral immunity

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71

blood type

one of the classes into which individual vertebrates and especially humans or their blood can be separated based on presence of absence of antigens

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72

immunity

a condition of being able to resists a particular disease

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73

lymph

a usually clear fluid that passes from intercellular spaces of body tissue into the lymphatic vessels, discharged by blood by the thoracic duct, etc.

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74

lymph node

Any of the rounded masses of lymphoid tissue that are surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue, are distributed along the lymphatic vessels, and contain numerous lymphocytes which filter the flow of lymph passing through the node.

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75

lymphocyte

Any of the colorless weakly motile cells that originate from stem cells and differentiate in lymphoid tissue (as of the thymus or bone marrow), that are the typical cellular elements of lymph, that include the cellular mediators of immunity, and that constitute 20 to 30 percent of the white blood cells of normal human blood.

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76

Macrophage

An amoeboid cell that moves through tissue fibers, engulfing bacteria and dead cells by phagocytosis.

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77

Pathogen

a specific causative agent of disease

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78

pedigree

a diagram of a family tree showing the heritable characters in parents of offspring over multiple generation

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79

t lymphocyte

A type of lymphocyte responsible for cell-mediated immunity that differentiates under the influence of the thymus.

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80
  1. Based on what you know about the structure and function of different types of tissue in the body, what specific type(s) of tissue make up human skin? Explain your reasoning.

The epidermis is made up from epithelial, and that helps in protection. The skin does plenty of protecting because it protects all other organs in your body from protection. The dermis is connective tissue.

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81
  1. How does the epithelial tissue found in the epidermis of the skin differ in structure from the connective tissue found in the dermis of the skin? How is this structure linked to the function of each layer?

Epithelial tissue are made of tightly compact cells. The connective tissue is less compact, and has a non structural matrix, and depending on the make up of the matrix determines the type of cells you have.

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82

Describe how other hbs interact with the skin to carry out functions

The nervous system works with the skin to bring sensory information to be sent to the brain. It also works with the immune system because it is the first line of defense, and help keep bacteria out.

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83
  1. Explain how the skin helps in regulating body temperature. Mention at least two of the structures you labeled in your diagram.

Skin helps in regulating body temperature by the sweat glands and the subcutaneous layer. The sweat gland release sweat from the sweat gland in order for the body to cool off, and the subcutaneous layer (adipose) helps to insulate.

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84
  1. Knowing what you do about the structural components of the skin, why is collagen used in cosmetic procedures to fill and hide wrinkles?

It is used to create new networks of strength in the skin, and helps the skin stay refreshed. It appears in so many cosmetics because it helps make wrinkles less apparent.

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85
  1. How do the skin proteins - keratin, melanin, elastin and collagen - each contribute to our physical identity? How about the dermal papillae?

The proteins collagen and elastin because they allow for flexibility, elasticity, and support. Melanin gives the skin, hair, and eye its pigment color, and the keratin helps. Dermal papillae helps nurish the epidermal layer. Dermal papillae are your fingerprints.

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86

Explain why a person with third degree burns may feel limited pain or no pain

when someone has third degree burns, nerves are damaged below skin, therefore pain is not signaled to the brain

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87
  1. Explain how the homeostasis in the body may be disturbed by 2nd degree burns.

Homeostasis may be disturbed because the skin in the body's first line of defense, and when it is burned, it is no longer able to keep out the bacteria, therefore risking the body of infection. It also can affect body temperature regulation because the skin can no longer carry out the functino of releasing sweat due to the damage.

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88
  1. Explain why it is wise to give a burn victim "broad-spectrum" antibiotics.

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89

`

The skin is the body's first line of defense. When this is damaged, the bacteria on the skin have a route into the body. Because you do not know what kind of bacteria are around or how much there is, you should use "broad-spectrum" antibiotics

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90
  1. How can pain be considered a protective mechanism?

Pain helps people to stop what they are doing that could be harmful to the body. If a person lays their hand on the stove, pain signals the brain to stop putting it there, protecting the person of burns

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91
  1. What properties of bone prevented Matt from breaks and damage to internal organs?

Strength and lightness, calcium and phosphorus. Also, the bones are always adjusting to what you do.

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92
  1. What role did Matt being knocked unconscious play in his body's ability to resist damage?

Matt/s body went limp and all his muscles were relaxed, this allows his bones to evenly absorb the landing. Had he been conscious, the consequences would have been much worse.

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93
  1. What type of fibers or minerals do you find in the extracellular matrix of bone? How does this composition relate to the properties of bone?

Mainly, collagen fibers are found in the extracellular matrix of bone. This deals with the composition because collagen is a very strong and sturdy material,, allowing the bones to be very stable.

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94
  1. What aspects of bone's structure make it stronger than concrete? Think about the engineering design of bone. Use the terms tensile strength and compressional strength in your answer.

Calcium in bones make up the strong framework of bones. Along with this, collagen fibers help make the bone stable like concrete. Bones have a very high tensile strength, which is why we can put the pressure of our body weight on them without the bones breaking. The ends or extremities are made of cancellous material which is very good at fighting compression , and gaining compressional strength.

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95
  1. How do red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow differ in function?

Red bone marrow creates red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Yellow bone marrow stores fat.

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96
  1. Explain how the structure of spongy bone helps reduce the overall weight of bone.

Spongy bone has many pores and holes in it, making it way much less than the compact bone, who is much denser, and weigh much more.

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97
  1. Describe at least two ways bone functions in protection of the human body.

The skull functions as a protector to the brain and all inside. The skull also gives the brain and head its shape, and allows the brain to stay still and not move around. The ribs protect the heart and lungs from damage internally and externally. It provides a structure to the torso as well.

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98
  1. Why is bone classified as connective tissue?

It is classified as connective tissue because it has a matrix.

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99
  1. Describe at least three bones that function to protect a particular internal organ.

So the cranium (skull) protects the brain, ribs protect lungs and heart, vertabrae protects the spinal cord, sternum protects the heart,

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100
  1. Which would have a greater impact on the body's homeostasis, an open or a closed fracture? Why?

An open fracture because it exposes the internal body to the outside environment and breaks the layer of skin that protects the body from infection and regulates body temperature. Open fracture breaks through the skin, closed means it does not,

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