Political Science 104: Final Exam Terms

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public goods

no rivalry among consumers can help make an interest group better, such as change in government policy desired by members

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prisoners' dilemma

Both Confess-->5 Years \n One Confess, the other doesnt--> Confession goes free \n Both Don't Confess--> one year for each

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Olson's theory of interest groups

a lot of groups won’t form in the first place because people only join if there is social pressure or benefits;

- need selective benefit for joining

- collective action, free rider problem

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selective incentives

benefits that can motivate participation in a group effort because they are available only to those who. participate, such as member services offered by interest groups

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free rider problem

the problem faced by unions and other groups when people do not join because they can benefit from the group’s activities without officially joining

- the bigger the group, the more serious the problem

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the problem of collective action

a situation in which the members of a group would benefit by working together to produce some outcome, but each individual is better off refusing to cooperate and reaping benefits from those who do the work

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lobbyists / lobbying

people whose job it is to solicit and persuade state and federal legislators to create legislation and vote for bills that favor the interests of the group they represent

- can work for corporations, a private individual, or the public interest

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“inside” strategies

tactics employed within DC, by interest groups seeking to achieve their policy goals (direct lobbying, drafting legislation, research, hearings, litigation, working together)

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“outside” strategies

tactic employed outside DC, by interest groups seeking to achieve their public goals (grassroots lobbying, mobilizing public opinion, electioneering, cultivating media contacts, bypassing government)

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hyper pluralism

theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened

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theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group

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Political Action Committee (PACs)

a committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations

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material incentives

benefits that have a monetary value, including money, gifts, services, or discounts received as a result of one’s membership in an organization

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solidary incentives

sense of pleasure, status, or companionship arising from group membership

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purposive incentive

relate to one’s ethical beliefs or ideological principles

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Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission

a 2010 landmark Supreme Court case that rules that individuals, corporations, and unions could donate unlimited amounts of money to groups that make independent political expenditures

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dark money

political money where the donors of the money do not have to be disclosed

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equality of outcome

the concept that society must ensure that people are equal, and governments must design policies to redistribute wealth and status so that economic and social equality is actually achieved

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equality of opportunity

a widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever. talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential

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separation of people based on their racial, ethnic, or other differences

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de jure segregatiion

racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decision by public agencies

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de facto segregation

racial segregation that occurs in schools, not as a result of the laws, but as a result of patterns of residential settlement

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classical liberalism

advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom

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ascriptive americanism

society is a hierarchy, some groups are on top → rogers smith American culture combines the tradition of liberalism, classical republicanism, and ascriptive americanism

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affirmative action

policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantages groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination

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reverse discrimination

practice or policy of favoring individuals belonging to groups known to have been discriminated against previously

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separate but equal

the judicial precedent established by Plessy v Ferguson decision that enabled states to interpret the equal 14th amendment as a means of establishing segregation

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nonviolent direct action

strategy used by civil rights leaders such as MLK , in which protestors break “unjust” laws openly but in a “loving” fashion in order to bring the injustices of such laws to public attention

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Brown v Board of Education

1954 - SCOTUS overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated

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1964 Civil Rights Act

act prohibited because of race, color, sex, religion, or national origin by employers or labor unions

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1965 Voting Rights Act

act suspended the use of literacy tests and authorized the appointment of federal examiner who could order the registration of blacks in states and counties where fewer than 50% were registered, or voted previously

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civil rights movement

movement in the US beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual black citizens

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just law

ordinance of reason that exists for the common good, having been made by legitimate authority and legislated through an appropriate and recognized process

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unjust laws

human law that contradicts or otherwise fails to conform to divine and natural law

such a law is never binding on a person’s conscience and must be opposed

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14th Amendment

declares that all persons born in the US are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

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set-aside programs

money set aside for specific purpose; to create diversity in things like business ownership (women and minorities)

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color-blind jurisprudence

not looking at race when making decisions (SCOTUS)

saying you can redraw districts based solely on race

avoiding discriminatory results instead of discriminatory intent

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period after the Civil War when the federal government rules the souther states in order to rebuild them and allow them back into the Union

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strict scrutiny

SCOTUS test to see if a law denies equal protection because it does not serve a compelling state interest and is not narrowly tailored to achieve that goal

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intermediate scrutiny

a test used by SCOTUS in gender discrimination cases that places the burden of proof partially on the government and partially on the challengers to show that the law in question is unconstitutional

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reasonable basis test

use of evidence to suggest that differences in the behavior of two groups can rationalize unequal treatment of these groups, such as charging 16 to 21 years old higher prices for auto insurance than people over 21 because younger people have higher accident rates

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Jim Crow laws

limited rights of black people

literacy tests, grandfather clause, poll taxes → limited voting rights

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theory or practice of shielding a country’s domestic industry from foreign competition by taxing imports

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Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009

each time a person is paid discriminatory wages, benefits, or compensation, a cause of action arises and the victim has 180 days to file a complaint

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disparate impact

condition in which employment practices are seemingly neutral yet disproportionately exclude a protected group from employment opportunity

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Obergefell v Hodges

states obligated to recognize same sex marriage from other states

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“don’t ask, don’t tell”

military policy announced by Clinton in 1993 that barred officials from inquiring into the sexual orientation of military personnel who admitted to being gay or engaging in homosexual behavior

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Great Society

what Pres. Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program

in 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education

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New Deal Programs

set of policies proposed by FDR

→ enacted by Congress between 1933 and 1935 to promote economic recovery and social welfare during the Great Depression, providing those in need with jobs and money

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Social Security

federal program of disability and retirement benefits that covers most working people

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policies for which Congress has obligated itself to pay X level of benefits to Y number of recipients

ex: SS benefits

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a federal and state assistance program that pays for health care services for people who cannot afford them

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requires all US citizens to have healthcare and requires those who do not to pay a penalty

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Social Security Trust Fund

the “bank account” into which SS contributions are “deposited” and used to pay out eligible recipients

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social safety net

the many programs that the federal government provides to protect Americans against economic and social misfortune

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democrats SS plan

raise payroll taxes by 3% and increase income ceiling that is taxable

better inflation tracker is to save money

gradually increase the retirement age to 70 (Rs agree)

. maintain the basic structure of a public social insurance system

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Republicans SS plan

want to establish individual investment accounts (PRA) ranging from 2-6% of income tax

possible cut future benefits and raise retirement age

privatize part of social security

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Obama’s debt commissions plans to save Social Security

gradually increase retirement age

use CPI to better track inflation

to increase payments slower, raise cap on amount of payroll that can be taxed

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TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families)

1996 national act that abolished the longtime welfare policy, AFDC

TANF gives the states more control over welfare policy

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distributive policy

public policy such as Social Security that provides benefits to all groups in society

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regulatory policy

policy that results in government control over individual and businesses

ex : protection of the environment and consumer protection

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redistributive policy

type of policy that takes benefits (usually through taxes) from one group of Americans and gives them to another (usually through spending)

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contributory programs

not means tested welfare, funded by taxes

ex: social security, medicare

  • everybody who pays in can see their return in the policy

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non-contributory programs

means tested welfare programs, getting something for nothing,

EX: medicaid, food stamps, housing assistance, TANF: like haandouts for those who qualify

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welfare state

concept of govt. in which it plays a key role in protecting and promoting the economic and social well being and health of its citizens - especially, those in financial need

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health insurance exchanges

marketplace created to give individuals, small businesses. and others access to affordable private health insurance

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the ownership society

term used to describe the social policy vision of President GW Bush, in which citizens take responsibility for their own social welfare and the free market plays a greater role in social policy

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Supreme Court ruling on Obamacare

upheld Congress’s power to pass health care reform, but struck down the use of coercive federalism to expand Medicaid

based on taxing power rather than commerce clause

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income inequality

the unequal distribution of household or individual income across the various participants in an economy

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balanced budget amendment

a constitutional amendment that required that annual spending not exceed revenues, has not been passed

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Federal Reserve Board

govern the 12 federal reserve banks, serve 14 year terms - president serves 4 years and is appointed by president

set interest rates and can buy and sell bonds in the market to change money supply

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fiscal policy

government policy that attempts to manage the economy, by controlling taxing, spending and the budget

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monetary policy

government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates

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supply-side economics

an economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest

  • greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government

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regulatory policy

policy that results in government control over individuals and businesses

ex: include protection of the environment and consumer protection

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general and progressive increase in prices

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federal debt and deficits

deficits: annual shortfall between revenue and spending (surplus if positive)

debt: the accumulation of all past deficits

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goals of economic policy making

full employment, stable prices, balanced budgets and balance of payments

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trade deficit

situation in which a country imports more than it exports

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full employment

the level of employment reached when there is no cyclical employment

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Non Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment

  • specific level of unemployment that exists in an economy that doesn’t make inflation increase

  • often represents equilibrium between state of the economy and labor marker

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misery index

unofficial stat that is the sum of the monthly inflation and the unemployment rate

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Keynesian Countercyclical Policies

during the boom periods, the government ought to increase taxes or cut spending, and during periods of economic. woe, the government should undertake deficit spending

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Laffer curve

a supposed relationship between economic activity and the rate of taxation that suggests the existence of an optimum tax rate that maximizes tax revenue

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periodic process of adjusting social benefits or wages to account for increases in the cost of living

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annual cost of living adjustments mandated by law in Social Security and other welfare benefits

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mandatory spending

federal spending required by law that continues without the need for annual approvals by Congress

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discretionary spending

federal spending on programs that are controlled through the regular budget process

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the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually in an economy

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the economic meltdown of 2008 - 2009

lots of toxic debt from cdo’s with terrible mortgages in them, led to stock market collapsing and trillions of dollars just disappearing, housing bubble burst

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bailed out big banks by giving them 700 billion dollars cuz they needed cash to survive the crash, brought out idea of too big to fail

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a US foreign policy adopted by Truman in the late 1940s, in which the US tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries resist Soviet advances

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discouraging military actions by other nations by the threat of force

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mutually assured destruction

doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender

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balance of power

countries of relatively the same strength and alliances which leads to nothing happening, no economic or military domination

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United Nations

international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation

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tools of foreign policy, personal contact, and negotiations with national leaders and representatives to work out international agreements or to persuade other nations to change their behavior

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policy of non-participation in international economic and political relations

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world order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision-making process

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Monroe Doctrine

American foreign policy opposing interference in the western hemisphere from outside powers

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