Anatomy/physiology ch 5

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epithelial tissue

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121 Terms

1

epithelial tissue

composed of 1 ort more layers

cover the body surfaces, lines both body and organ cavities

form glands

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cellularity

epithelial composed of tightly packed cells

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polarity

epithelium has both apical and basal surface

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4

apical

exposed to external environment

may have either microvilli or cilia

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5

basal

epithelium is attached to basement membrane, underlying connective tissue

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avascularity

all epithelial tissue lacks blood vessels

nutrients obtained by diffusion through basal surface from blood vessels

or directly across apical surface

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extensive innervation

epithelia are supplied with nerves to detect changes in the environment

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high regeneration capacity

epithelial cells undergo cell division frequently.

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9

epithelial cells

stem cells

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10

epithelia primary functions

physical protection, selective permeability, secretions, sensations

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11

simple epithelium

1 layer of epithelial cells

found in areas with minimal stress.

filtration, absorption, or secretion is the primary function

contact with basal layer

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12

stratified epithelium

contains 2 or more layer of epithelial cells

resembles brick wall

provides structural support /better protection for underlying layer

found in basal layer

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13

pseudostratified epithelium

appeared to be layered

simplest type of epithelium

attached to basement membrane (basal)

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14

squamous cell s

cells are flat, wide and irregularly shaped

nucleus is flattened

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15

cuboidal cell s

tall as they are wide. rounded squares

nucleus is spherical and in the middle of the cell

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columnar cell s

slender and taller than they are wide

nucleus is oval

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transitional cell s

can change shape when distended and relaxed

ex lining if the bladder that filles with urine then empties

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18

simple squamous epithelium

single layer of flattened cells

thinnest possible barrier

allows rapid movement of molecules and ions across epithelium by membrane transport

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19

simple epithelium

simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, pseudostratified columnar

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20

stratified epithelium

stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal, stratified columnar, transitional, keratinized, nonkeratinized

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21

endothelium

name of simple squamous epithelium that lines both blood vessels and Lympth vessels

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22

mesothelium

name given to squamous epithelium that forms serous membranes of body cavities

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23

simple cuboidal epithelium

1 layer uniform shaped cells

located in spherical nucleus

allows absorption and secretion s

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24

simple columnar epithelium

single layer of cells

ideal for absorptive and secretory function s.

2 forms- has no cilia and covered with cilia

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25

nonciliated simple columnar

contains microvilli and scatters unicellular galnd’s called goblet cells- secrete mucin

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26

mucin

glycoprotein

when mixed with water forms mucus

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27

ciliated simple columnar epithelium

has cilia projecting from apical surface of the cell

mucus covers apical cell and is moved by cillia

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pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

conations cilia on its apical surface

performs protective structures

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pseudostratified nonciliated epithelium

lacks cilia

preforms protective functions

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30

pharynx

throat

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larynx

voice box

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stratified squamous epithelium

multiple cell layers and only in the deepest layer is indirect contact with basal membrane

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33

keratinized squamous epithelium

superficial layer composed of cells that are dead filled with protein called keratin

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34

keratin

tough protective protein that strengthens the tissue

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35

nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

lack keratin but remain alive

line oral cavity, pharynx, larynx esophagus,, vagina and anus

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36

stratified cuboidal epithelium

contains 2 or more layers of cells

forms tubes and ducts

protects/.secretes

tissues found in the walls of most exocrine glands

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37

stratified columnar epithelium

rare

2 or more layers of cells

found in large ducts of salivary glands, conjunctiva covering the eye, and segment of male urethra.

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38

transitional epithelium

limited to urinary tract

binucleated- 2 nuclei

able to stretch ensures urine does not seep to other organs

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39

glands

either individual or multicellular organs composed of epithelial tissue

secrete substances hormones, enzymes etc

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40

endocrine glands

lack ducts and secrete hormones into the blood to be transported through the body

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41

exocrine glands

excrete waste or other substances

sweat glands mammary glands and salivary glands

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42

duct

epithelium lined tube where secretion are discharged

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43

unicellular exocrine glands

do not contain ducts

located close to the surface of epithelium

most common type is goblet cell

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44

multicellular exocrine glands

multiple cells work together to produce a secretion

consist of acini- clusters of cluster of cells that produce secretions

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45

simple glands

single unbranched ducts

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46

compound glands

branched ducts

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tubular

gland

if the secretory portion and the duct have the same diameter

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48

ainar

secretory portion forms and expanded sac

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49

apocrine glands

produce secretory material when cells apical portion pinches off

releasing cytoplasmic content

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50

holocrine glands

formed from cells that accumulate product

entire cell disintegrates

sebaceous glands oil glands

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51

connective tissue

support, protect and bind organs

tendons - muscle to bone

ligaments-bone to bone

adipose, cartilage, bone and blood

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52

resident cells

stationary cells housed with connective tissue

support/maintain/repair extracellular matrix

fibroblasts - produce fibers

adipocytes - fat cells

mesenchymal - embryonic stem cell

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53

fixed macrophages

large irregular shape cell derived from leukocyte- white blood cell.

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54

wandering cells

move through connective tissue

components of immune system

types of leukocytes

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55

protein fibers

in connective tissue strengthen and support tissue

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56

collagen fibers

unbranched long protein fibers that are strong and flexible

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reticular fibers

similar to collagen fibers but thinner

abundant in stroma

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58

stroma

connective tissue framework

lymph nodes, spleen and liver

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elastic fibers

contain the protein elastin

recoil easily and abundant in the skin, arteries and lungs allowing them to be stretched back to their original shape

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60

ground substance

molecular material produced by connective tissue cells

connective tissue and protein fibers reside inside

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61

glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)

polysaccharides that have an attached amine group

negative charge and hydrophilic

attract cation (Na+)

can attract and absorb water

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62

proteoglycan

when a GAG is linked to a protein and becomes bigger

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63

mesenchyme

first type of connective tissue in developing embryo

all connective tissue comes from it

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64

mucous connective tissue

immature protein fibers

located in the umbilical cord only

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65

loose connective tissue

contains fewer cells and protein fibers than dense connective tissue

sparse and irregular shaped

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66

areolar connective tissue

unconfined organization

present everywhere in the body

found in skin

protects and surrounds organs, nerve cells, muscke cells and blood vessels

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67

adipose connective tissue

highly vascularized

loose connective

2 types - brown and white

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68

brown adipose connective tissue

found in newborns and generate heat

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white adipose connective tissue

long term energy storage

insulator

cushion against shocks

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70

connective tissue proper

loose connective tissue - areolar, adipose, reticular

dense connective tissue - dense irregular, dense regular, elastic

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71

supporting connective tissue

cartilage- hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage

bone- compact and spongy

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72

fluid connective tissue

blood and lymph

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73

reticular connective tissue

houses leukocytes and fibroblasts

forms stroma- structural framework

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74

dense connective tissue

composed of protein fibers

dominant in collagen fibers

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75

dense regular connective tissue

contains few fibroblasts

found in tendons where stress is typically applied in 1 direction

few blood cells- long heal time

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76

dense irregular connective tissue

bundles and clumps of fibers

supply blood between collagen fibers

found in most of the dermis

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77

elastic connective tissue

composed of numerous fibroblasts

provide stability for tissue to stretch and recoil

walls of large arteries, trachea and vocal cords

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78

cartilage

firm semisolid contains collagen and elastic protein fibers.

strong and resilient

more flexible than bone

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79

chondrocytes

mature cartilage cells

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80

hyaline cartilage

provides flexible structures

most common type

found in respiratory tract

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81

fibrocartilage

weight bearing

good shock absorber

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82

elastic cartilage

flexible and stringy

helps ear spring back to original shape

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83

bone connective tissue

osseous

makes up mass of most bone structures

bone tissue is vascularized

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84

osteocytes

mature bone cells

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85

compact bone

appears solid but has neurovascular canals

form osteons

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86

spongy bone

strong yet light weight

houses hematopoietic - blood cells

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87

hematopoietic

blood cells- form reticular connective tissue that makes up blood - hematopoiesis

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88

2 types of fluid connective tissue

blood and lymph

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89

blood

composed of foamed elememts

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90

plasma

liquid ground substance

within are proteins and solutes

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91

lymph

derived from blood plasma

contains no cellular components

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92

3 types of muscle tissue

skeletal muscle, cardiac mule, smooth muscle

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93

skeletal muscle

striated / voluntary

responsible for movement of skeleton

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94

cardiac muscle tissue

thick middle layer of heat wall call myocardium

pumping action of the heart to move blood through cardiovascular system

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95

smooth muscle tissue

visceral/involuntary

lacks striations

appears smooth

involuntary we dint have control over this muscle

found in internal organs

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96

nervous tissue

located in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves through the body

cells called neurons - receive process and transmit impulses

contain glial cells- support cells - protection and nourishment

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97

cell body

houses nucleus and other organelles

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98

dendrites

receive incoming signals and transmit info to the cell body

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axon

carries outgoing signals to other cells

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body membranes

formed from epithelial layer bound to connective tissue

4 types- mucous, serous, cutaneous, synovial

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