Rupa Book of Geology

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Lower Cretaceous

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1

Lower Cretaceous

Fossils of angiosperms appear first in rocks of which geological age?

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2

Rocks of the Earth

The science of geology is concerned with which part of the globe?

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3

Rober, Lowell, 1661

The term 'geology' as a distinct branch of physical science was used first by whom and in which year?

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4

Theophrastus

The earliest Greek philosopher to write a treatise on minerals and rocks titled concerning stones was?

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5

Uniformitarianism

What is the basic principle of geology?

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6

4600

How many million years old is the Earth according to the latest determinations?

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7

Lithosphere

What is the outer, rigid part of the Earth's crust consisting of the sial and the upper part of sima known as?

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8

Zone just below the crust

Which part of the Earth is called the Mantle?

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9

2900m

what is the estimated thickness of the Earth's mantle

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10

Asthenosphere

What is the zone within the upper mantle underlying the lithosphere called?

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11

Barysphere

It is the interior of the Earth beneath the lithosphere

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12

30-40km (30-70km)

What is the average thickness of the continental crust?

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13

Silica

Which is the largest component of the Earth's crust?

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14

solid nickel-iron

What is the core of the Earth made of?

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15

Clinometer

What is the name of the instrument for measuring the angle between an inclined surface and the horizontal surface called?

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16

dipmeter

A device to measure the direction of dip of rock beds adjacent to the borehole

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17

About 30%

The total land surface of the Earth is what percentage of the surface area of the globe?

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18

Denudation

wearing away of land by various natural agencies come under the ambit of...

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19

4 billion years

The oldest rocks are dated from about?

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20

25

what is the percentage of non-sedimentary rocks on the Earth's surface?

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21

Feldspar

Which is the most common mineral in the Earth's crust?

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22

Aluminum

Which is the most abundant economic element in the Earth's crust?

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23

Silicon

If not for this element, the present day IT (information technology) revolution would not have been possible.

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24

Molten silicate fluid in the Earth's crust

What is magma?

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25

Entire body of water on the Earth's surface

Hydrosphere is which part of the Earth?

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26

Geodesy

The branch of science concerned with the shape and size of the Earth, its gravitational field and location of fixed points is called?

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27

Geophysics

it is the study of the forces that affect Earth

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28

Meteorites

Aerolite, siderolite, and siderites are terms used for which celestial objects that strike the Earth from time to time?

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29

1.3

For dating rocks potassium-40 decays to argon 40 with a half-life of how many billion years?

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30

Geologic time

Rubidium-strontium method is used for which measurement in geology?

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31

dating of minerals

Fission-track method is used for what purpose?

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32

in radioactive dating

For what are isotopes of an element used in geology?

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33

age of glacial deposits

Varve analysis is done to calculate what?

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34

autochthonus

Rocks that are not transported and occur in situ are said to be...

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35

country rock

what is a nonigneous rock surrounded by an igneous intrusion called?

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36

crystalline core of a sedimentary rock fold

What is a geological 'envelope'?

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37

Mohole project

What was the name of the project of drilling through the Earth's crust?

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38

part of Earth's crust consisting of a stable mass of rock

What is a craton?

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39

separation between crust and mantle

What is Mohorovicic Discontinuity?

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40

Guttenburg Discontinuity

what is the name of the break marking the mantle-core boundary?

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41

The upper and lower crust

Seismic evidence marks Conrad Discontinuity between what?

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42

isochron

A line joining points of equal time intervals or ages is known as..?

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43

compacted volcanic ash

what is a tuff?

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44

magmatic processes

Pyrogenic deposition is due to which geologic process?

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45

rocks of diverse character mingled together

- What is understood by melange?

- what best describes a melange?

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46

Henryr Sorby

Name the scientist who pioneered the study of rocks in thin section under the microscope

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47

construction of a scale of mineral hardness

What was the contribution of Austrian mineralogist Friedrich Mohs to the science of geology?

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48

Austria

Edward Suess made several basic contributions to geology. He was a national of which country?

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49

C. E. Dutton

Who was the geologist who advanced and named the "Theory of Isostasy" ?

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50

Pierre Bouguer

A gravity anomaly that takes into account the effect of topography but not isostatic compensation is named after which mathematician?

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51

Alfred Wegener

The Theory of Continental Drift was basically developed by whom?

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52

James Hutton

The Theory of Uniformitarianism was developed by whom?

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53

Principles of Geology

The title of the book by Charles Lyell which laid the foundation of modern geology is...

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54

continental drift

what crucial theory of science of geology, now a part of the theory of plate tectonics, has an Indian connection?

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55

A.G. Werner

The now-discarded neptunean theory of the origin of the origin of the Earth was developed by which geologist, who otherwise was a great teacher of the subject in his time?

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56

W.H. Wollaston

Name of the great mineralogist who invented the goniometer

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57

J.L. Agassiz

Which paleontologist advanced the theory that vast areas of the Earth had once been covered by ice?

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58

polarizing microscope

What do the geologists owe to the invention by William Nicol?

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59

birefringence

What is the ability of anisotropic minerals to split plane-polarised light into two rays as it passes through them called?

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60

Charles Darwin

Natural selection of the species is the basic principle of evolution of life. Name the naturalist who enunciated this principle.

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61

X-radiation

The very first Nobel Prize for Physics was won in 1901 by W.K. Rontgen for a discovery that has a bearing on the study of mineralogy. what was it?

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62

Piltdown Mystery

The great forgery that shook the geological world in the early 20th century is known by the name of...

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63

Jean-Baptiste Tavernier

A European traveler wrote an extensive account of the diamond mines in India during his visit in medieval times. who was he?

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64

Paris

Where are the headquarters of the International Union of Geological Sciences located?

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65

angle of inclination in beds

A clinometer is required to measure what?

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66

to view aerial photographs in three dimension

A stereoscope is used for which purpose?

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67

petrological microscope

An instrument used by geologist has a rotating stage. which is it?

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68

a fossil

A postage stamp was issued in the year 1951 on a geological object. what was it?

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69

William Hopkins

'Physical Geology' was the term coined by which British scientist?

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70

Physical relief of the Earth's surface

Orography deals with which branch of geology?

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71

Orogeny

What is the process of mountain building called?

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72

fold mountain

The Himalayan Mountain is placed in which category?

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73

Limestone

The summit of Mount Everest us made up of which rock?

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74

in Eastern Nepal

The Mahabharat Range lies in which part of the Himalayas

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75

Godwin Austen (K2)

What is the name of the prominent peak that is situated on the Karakoram range

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76

New Zealand South Island

Where are the Southern Alps situated?

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77

Mt Aconcagua in the Andes

Which is the tallest mountain peak outside the Himalayan

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78

Mauna Kea

Name of the tallest mountain peak on the surface of the planet Earth

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79

Mid-Atlantic ridge

Which is the longest mountain range on the globe?

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80

20km

What is the maximum difference in elevation on the Earth's surface between Mount Everest (the highest point) and the Challenger Deep (the lowest point) in the Marianas Trench in the pacific?

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81

seaward slope on the outer border of continents

Which part of the globe's surface is known as the continental shelf?

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82

Syntaxis

The sharp bend in a mountain chain is termed what?

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83

narrow depression in a mountain ridge

One reads often a 'col' in descriptions of a mountain expedition. what exactly is it?

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84

350km; 1900m

The Great Canyon in USA is one of the most remarkable features on the Earth's surface. What is its length and its maximum depth?

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85

Vishnu

The basement formation exposed in the Grand Canyon is USA is named after a Hindu god. Which one?

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86

residual, isolated hill-like feature

What type of landform is an inselberg?

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87

bornhardt

What is a sugar-loaf hill?

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88

pediplane

What is a broad landscape of low relief broken by residual uplands in arid regions known as?

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89

tableland

What is a plateau bordered by steep, cliff-like scarps called?

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90

cuesta

A landform that has a gentle dip slope on one side, and a steep scarp slope on the other is known as?

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91

A small, rounded mound or mass of resistant bedrock?

In geology, what is a 'boss'?

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92

tabular mass of resistant rock resting on undercut pillar of softer rock

Which interesting landform is known as a zeugen?

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93

tor

An isolated mass of well weathered and joined rock is known by which term?

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94

hogback

A sharp-crested ridge formed by steeply inclined resistant rock product of differential erosion is known as?

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95

Dead sea

What is the lowest point on the Earth's land surface?

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96

weathering

The general process by which rocks and mineral are broken down at or below the Earth's surface is called?

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97

building up of land surface by deposition

What is the process of aggradation?

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98

corrosion

What is the process of natural chemical removal of rock during denudation known as?

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99

rivers and streams

Which are the principal agents of subaerial denudation?

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100

karstic scenery

Extensive denudation of limestone and dolomite country produces a typical landscape. what is it called?

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