SP 137 - Module 4: Preschool language development

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develop slowly

By preschool age: Fine motor abilities continue to ____________

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share toys and start to take turns with peers

By preschool age: unlike 2 year olds, a 3 year old+ child will _____________

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isolated play

By preschool age: 2 years old, what we expect is more ________, schemas are only familiar ones

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onlooking play

By preschool age: 3 years old, we expect ___________, share, take turns, interact with other peers

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sounds and words

By preschool age: Play is often accompanied by ______________ as the child explains actions, makes environmental noises, or takes various roles

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imaginate ways

By preschool age: Uses toys in _______________ and exhibits much make-believe play

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>3.0

Phase 6 Complex Sentences: Mean Length of Utterance average number

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"And"

Phase 6 Complex Sentences: ______ for sequential events

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as the events take place

Phase 6 Complex Sentences: When are Utterances are produced?

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causality

Phase 6 Complex Sentences: ________ is not expressed through so and because, preschoolers use 'and'

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successive

Increase in production of __________ utterances without connectives

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causality

New Content Categories Phase 6 Example: "You can't see it cause it's way inside"

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Dative

New Content Categories Phase 6 Example: "I got these for you" & "Give the spoon to daddy"

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Specification

New Content Categories Phase 6 Example: "She got the toy in the box"

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Attribute/Recurrence with Loc. Action and Possession with state

+embedded in Phase 6: Complex Sentences

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Phase 7: Syntactic Connectives and Modal Verbs

What phase has an increase production of sequential and causal relationships

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Phase 7: Syntactic Connectives and Modal Verbs What phase uses more of 'because' and 'then'

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Adversative

Phase 7 New content categories: use of "but"

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Epistemic

Phase 7 New content categories: use of "know", "think", "don't know"

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State

Phase 7 New content categories: use of "can" (mood)

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Temporal Concepts

Phase 8 Relative: Development of grammatical morphemes for __________

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Phase 8: Relative

temporal concepts like -ed (past tense) are found in what phase?

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Phase 8: Relative

temporal concepts like -s (third person singular; added to verb) are found in what phase?

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Phase 8: Relative

temporal concepts like -ing (present progressive verbs)

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Phase 8: Relative

What phase do preschoolers start asking why questions

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Specification

Phase 8 Relative: ________ now includes object specification and time specification

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"That" or "where"

Phase 8 Relative: example of object specification

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"when"

Phase 8 Relative: example of time specification

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"Should", "must", "have to"

The new modal verbs of Stage 8 are?

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conversational context

Pragmatic Development: Children learn language within a ___________________

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primary caregiver

Pragmatic Development: Children learn through a _______________ (conversational context)

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responding, turn taking, topic initiation, etc

In Pragmatic Development, children learn skills like: __________________

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Conversational formats and routines

Pragmatic Development: ____________________ are used to provide support to preschool children

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monologues

In Pragmatic Development, Children are encouraged and expected to engage in ____________

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all kinds of activities

3 YEAR OLDS use monologues in ______________.

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sustained, focused goal-directed activities

4 YEAR OLDS are more selective with their monologues and are most likely to use "private speech" only in ________________________

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others are nearby

Gradually, children engage in monologues when _______________

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Audible monologue behavior

This type of monologue DECLINES with age

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Inaudible self-talk

This type of monologue INCREASES with age

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10

Self-talk decreases after age _____ but DOESN'T disappear

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Register, Conversational Repair, Topic Introduction, Maintenance & Closure, Deixis, DIrectives & Requests, Adaptation to Listener's Knowledge

Pragmatic skills that develop during this period:

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Register

"Different styles of speaking"

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Register

Learned through assuming different roles in play

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age & experience

Competence with REGISTERS varies with ______________________

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Register

Used in politeness

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Conversational Repair

"Requesting for clarification"

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Conversational Repair: "Requesting for clarification"

Use questions to initiate or continue conversations

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Conversational Repair: "Requesting for clarification"

Starts with non-verbal clarification

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Conversational Repair: "Requesting for clarification"

Develops to asking for general and non-specific information

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Conversational Repair: "Requesting for clarification"

Pragmatic Skills: E.g "what?" "huh"

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Conversational Repair

"Responding to clarification"

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Conversational Repair: "Responding to clarification"

Must be requested to clarify. (e.g "Can you say that again")

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Repetition

Clarification strategy = __________

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pauses or stalls

Clarification: presence of ___________

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revisions

This is when children will change what they're saying in the middle of the statement

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Stalls

change nothing in the linguistic structure

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Stalls

long silent pauses

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Stalls

Pauses filled with um or uh

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Revisions

change the utterance (e.g., phonology, intent, etc)

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Topic

content of the conversation

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Maintenance

by each communication partner's responses, comments, and additional information

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Closure

introducing a new topic, reintroducing a previous topic, or ending of a conversation

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Age 1 (Topic Introduction, Maintenance, Closure)

Skilled in initiating topics (glances, gestures, vocalization, & verbalization) (Topic Introduction, Maintenance, Closure)

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Age 2 (Topic Introduction, Maintenance, Closure)

Capable of maintaining coherent topics (Topic Introduction, Maintenance, Closure)

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Age 3.5 (Topic Introduction, Maintenance, Closure)

Utterances are on establish topics (Topic Introduction, Maintenance, Closure)

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Adaptation to the Listener's Knowledge

"Presupposition"

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Adaptation to the Listener's Knowledge

Making assumptions of the listener's background knowledge

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Adaptation to the Listener's Knowledge

Understanding that not everyone that they talk to understand what they're talking about

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Awareness of word meanings, Knowledge of the social context, Understanding of conversation topic

Different levels of adaptation to the listener's knowledge

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Before Age of 3 (Topic: Content of the Conversation)

Do not understand the need to provide information to their listeners (Topic: Content of the Conversation)

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Age 3 (Topic: Content of the Conversation)

Able to determine amount of info the listener needs (Topic: Content of the Conversation)

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Age 3 (Topic: Content of the Conversation)

Determine between definite (the) vs indefinite (a, an) articles (Topic: Content of the Conversation)

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Age 4 (Topic: Content of the Conversation)

Able to use verbs such as "know", "think", "forget" etc. as presuppositional tools (Topic: Content of the Conversation)

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Age 5 or 6 (Topic: Content of the Conversation)

Able to use verbs such as "wish", "guess", "pretend" (Topic: Content of the Conversation)

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Age 5 or 6 (Topic: Content of the Conversation)

presuppose that info is false (Topic: Content of the Conversation)

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Directives and Requests

Purpose it to get others to do things for the speaker

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Direct

Goal is clearly stated (Types of Directives and Requests)

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Indirect

Goal is NOT clearly stated (Types of Directives and Requests)

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Conventional

Typical way to request or direct (Types of Directives and Requests)

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Non-conventional ATYPICAL way to request or to direct (nagpaparinig) (Types of Directives and Requests)

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Age 2 (Directives and Requests)

Uses attention - getting words, gestures, and rising intonations (Directives and Requests)

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Age 2 (Directives and Requests)

Request words, problem statements, and verbal routines (Directives and Requests)

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Age 3 (Directives and Requests)

Makes POLITENESS DISTINCTION based on the communication partner (Directives and Requests)

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Age 4 (Directives and Requests)

Emerging use of indirect forms; becomes more aware of communication partners POV (Directives and Requests)

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Age 5 (Directives and Requests)

Appearance of nonconventional directives

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Age 5 (Directives and Requests)

Increas use of explanations and justifications

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Deixis

Used to DIRECT ATTENTION and make SPATIAL CONTRAST in a conversation from the speaker's POV

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this, that, here, and there

Deictic Terms

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Deixis

Pragmatic skill inherently difficult for preschoolers

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Point of reference, shifting perspectives, shifting boundaries

The problems of diectic acquisition

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speaker

Must learn that the POINT OF REFERENCE for the terms is the _________ (Problems of diectic acquisition)

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Shifting Perspectives

Each speaker creates a new point of reference, thus shifting point of reference (Problems of diectic acquisition)

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Shifting Boundaries

extent of social contrast is relative to context (Problems of diectic acquisition)

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94

Shifting Boundaries

understand how far and the extent of "here" and "there"

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Initial Phase

No contrast between different dimensions (Learning of Diectic Terms Phases)

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96

Initial Phase

Uses terms to direct attention (non-diectically) (Learning of Diectic Terms Phases)

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97

Initial Phase

don't know the difference of "here" and "there" (Learning of Diectic Terms Phases)

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98

Partial Contrast

Uses PROXIMAL terms (this, here) correctly but overuses it in place for DISTAL terms (Learning of Diectic Terms Phases)

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99

Partial Contrast

'this' used in place for 'that' (Learning of Diectic Terms Phases)

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100

Full Contrast

Correct and accurate use of deictic terms (Learning of Diectic Terms Phases)

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