Eastern Religions Exam

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118 Terms

1

eastern religions

axial age between 5th and 6th century BC far east- you look outward to the cosmos around you to discover reality

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chinese religions

not a religion of either or- they are a religion of and shame and honor

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3

daoism

is a philosophy - way of life

  • nature, mysticism, harmony

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confucianism

is a moral ethic - how you live it out the life of morality and social ethics

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5

daoism founder

Lao-tzu

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confucian founder

confucius

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daoism texts

doedejing

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dao de jing

split in two parts: first one deals with the Dao (Way), second deals with De (Power)

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The Daoist Cannon "Daozang"

three sections broken down into twelve section contains scriptures, commentaries, hagiographies, cultivation manuals, and liturgies

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confucian texts

analects of confucius

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in eastern religions, there is always a struggle between doing what is right and staying loyal to someone

true

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Ch’i force

life force behind everything (harnessed through meditative techniques and martial)

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13

Sheng

noble sage who contemplates on nature to arrive at original state of oneness

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14

yin yang

harmonious interaction between opposing universal forces- symbols of faith represents balance. Darkness (yin) and light (yang). You need both

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Analects

Collection of conversations between Confucius and others

  • You have to do what is right (Yi), to become right in your character (Li), which gives you wren (quality of goodness, character) to become a Junzi (goal)

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beginning of daoism

original indigenous religion of china began around 400 BC

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17

daoism was founded by

Lao Tzu but zhuangzi played a role

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18

Lao Tzu

born as an old man, highly respected. some believe that when he died, his body changed and formed parts of the earth

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Three pure ones

jade pure, upper pure, great pure They are regarded as pure manifestation of the Tao and the origin of all sentient beings.

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20

daoism has a big _____ influence

buddhist

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21

general daoism beliefs

emphasize a contemplative lifestyle/renunciation of social conventions/government in order to achieve a fusion with the Dao

  • great respect for the natural world/nature

  • belief in spirits of nature

  • belief in the three jewels: moderation, compassion, and humility

  • belief in the Dao rather than god, heaven, or hell

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22

religious daoism

  • older magical and ritual-based traditions

  • characterized by alchemy

  • belief in pantheon of immortal sages

  • search for bodily immortality

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philosophical daoism

  • form of nature mysticism

  • Daoist ideal – sage who contemplates nature to return to an original state of harmony with the mysterious principles (The Dao)

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24

the dao

explained as the mystery of mysteries

  • source of all things created and uncreated

  • similar to a god, but is not a being with form or body

  • is the "creator" of all things but is also manifested in all things

  • cannot be easily understood or explained

  • reaching oneness with the Dao is how you achieve ultimate immortality

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Wu-wei

“non-action,” more like going with the flow

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dao rituals

meditation - creates a way to become one with the Dao tai chi feng shui

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27

confucianism was not popular during the life of confucius

true

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28

founded by confucius in ____

500 BC but nearly died out during the Qin Dynasty (~210 BC)

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29

Emperor Wu the Great established it as the national philosophy

true

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30

master kong is also known as

confucius

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master kong

Born in 551 BC into the shi class (administrators, advisors, etc)

  • helped provide for his family at a young age

  • held positions in the local governments

  • gained a following as he travelled

  • teachings were shaped by his experiences

  • desired to bring China into another golden age by returning to ethical behavior

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32

confucianism core values

devotion to family (respect toward parents, older family members) education and Learning (life-long process)

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33

Junzi

– goal of Confucianism

  • culture individual who is revered for moral influence

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junzi prioritizes...

personal qualities and achievements rather than social status

  • embodies the 5 virtues, adheres to the 5 relationships, etc.

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35

Shu and Confucius’s Golden Rule

reciprocity

“Do not do to others what you would not want done to yourself.”

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36

mandate of heaven

did not originate from Confucianism, but is supported by its principles

  • belief that the ruler was divinely chosen by the Heavens (Tian)

  • ruler has absolute power but absolute responsibility

  • can be lost, leading to changes in dynasties

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37

five relationships in confucianism

ruler and subject father and son husband and wife older sibling and younger sibling older friend and younger friend

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Ren

benevolence

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yi

righteousness, your character

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40

li

propriety, ritual **what you do in terms of ritual (Li comes out of Yi)

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41

Zhi

wisdom, knowledge

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Xin

trustworthiness, integrity

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wren

quality of being good

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44

divination

Practice seeking knowledge of future engaging with the spirit world

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45

shaman

Person posses able to engage with the world of spirit and bring healing

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46

taboo

A social custom prohibiting to talk about a person or substance

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47

evil eye

Curses are brought about by such a malevolent glance that can cause injury

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48

confucian traditions

bowing is respect ancestor worship formal mourning period capping and hair pinning (entry to adulthood) marriage ceremony

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49

Mencius and Idealistic Confucianism

  • emphasized that rulers should be benevolent to their subjects

  • belief that humans are naturally good

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50

Xunzi and Realistic Confucianism

  • emphasized education and tradition

  • belief that humans are naturally selfish

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51

Zhu Xi and Neo-Confucianism

  • combined ideas from traditional Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism

  • belief that all humans have qi that must be cultivated

  • used meditation as a means of achieving moral perfection

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52

daoism and confucianism festivals

Chinese New Year – late January/early February Qingming Festival (Tomb Sweeping Day) – April 4th or 5th Dragon Boat Festival – late May/June Mid-Autumn Festival – mid-September/early October

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53

japanese shinto founder

none, established in 6 AD

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54

shinto

the way of the spirits

  • animstic faith. principles of buddhism and confucianism integrated (buddha as kami, confucian moral principles)

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shinto god

kami

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56

kami

general term for the entire range of divine beings that inhabit the world

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57

primary kami

amarterasu, the sun goddess

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kojiki

provides basic shinto mythology record of ancient matters AD 620, story of kami

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torii

A magical gateway arch to the shinto shrine or holy powerful space

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60

misogi

Water purification ritual to cleanse evil used ceremonially in groups

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miko

Female shinto worship leader as a medium assisting the shine priest

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Nihongi

chronicles of japan AD 720, more comprehensive record of nations history

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After death, they are kami

true

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Yata no Kagami

representative of wisdom (mirror)

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65

Kusanagi

valor (nail)

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Yasakani no magatama

benevolence (beads)

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67

Tomow

earth, man, and sky

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68

Shide

acts as a boundary to the sacred

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69

susanoo

The god of the storms, brother to eh sun goddess exiled for misdeeds

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70

izanagi

This father god stirs waters with radial spear creates land of Japan

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71

motoori norinaga

Scholar reached shinto spirits, rejected other faiths to affirm the Kolki

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72

analects are like proverbs

true

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73

shrine categories

Imperial - created during the state shinto period Inari - created for the kami of rice Hachiman - created for the kami of war Tenjin - created for the kami sugawara michizane Engen - created for the kami of mount fuji

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74

izumo

annual collection of the kami at the yaisha shrine (relationship/marriage)

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75

ise

celebration of the amatesau, the sun goddess

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for festivals, kami is...

carried to the location of the festival on sacred vehicles called mokoshi

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77

japanese culture

endurance/stamina, omiyari (think of others), know role in society, respect based on role

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sickness = impurity

true

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79

shinto are spiritual, not religious

true

  • not as many strict rules, no hierarchy- see each other as equals.

  • peace between religions.

  • emphasis on tradition and rules.

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80

challenges of faith

no absolute guidelines for faith, not a confirmed afterlife, death has a negative connotation.

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81

highest virtue in chinese religions

nobility

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82

who are the 3 noble sages?

Siddhartha Gautama (buddha seated in lotus position) Confucius (prim and proper/ people can be redeemed by knowledge) Lao Tzu (old master or old man/daodijing)

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83

buddhism can _____ the culture and context it is in

adapt

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84

counfcius analects and because of it he is made god

true

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85

golden rule

kunfutzu - treat others the way you want to be treated

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86

Japan is known as the

land of the rising sun

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87

neo-confucianism

buddha and daoism

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88

the japanese do not separate _______

material from the spiritual

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big picture in shinto religion

nationalism, power, pollution and purity (you can resist a power but you can only grieve person)

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big picture in confucianism

life philosophy and practical social ethics

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91

big picture in christianity

faith that works (divine grace)

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92

big picture in doaism

cosmic beauty and harmony with nature

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big picture in buddhism

life is transitory and enlightenment bliss

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94

dao is not a path

true, it is impersonal

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95

logos =

personal

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96

confucisnism boat festivals

Rice cakes eaten, and dragons made to war off evil spirits

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97

shinto haraigushi

Wade with White paper waves or placed for purification. Protection

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98

daoisms' taiji

Slow flow of martial arts movement beyond self-defense that

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buddhist oobon

Funeral Dance for the dead, offering prayers at their graves

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dao salvation

Becoming one with nature's mystical path and its spontaneous power

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